The Life and Works of
Dr. Jose P. Rizal

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The Life and Works of Dr. Jose P. Rizal - Poems written page
All letters written or received by Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Year Month Day Country City Letter Type Author Addresse Significance Notes Detail



Philippines
Manila
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Teodora Alonso

(1) Antonio Rivera. Father of Leonora Rivera.. NHI groups this with the 1880 letters in the book
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Dr. Jose P. Rizal

This may be an exercise in French composition or the draft of a letter. It is found in his notebook, Clinica Medica, in the Ayer Library at Chicago, U.S.A. It is unsigned and has no addressee.
(1) It’s 60 meters wide (2) Twelve immense Doric columns (3) The Quadriga is a team of four horses in copper with a Victoria bearing the eagle staff. In 1807 the French took the Quadriga to Paris as a war booty, but in 1814 it was brought back and decorated with an Iron Cross. (4) It’s 13 meters high, the figure of Friedrich with the horse alone being 5.65 meters. Around the base are groups of generals, ministers, and other famous contemporaries of the King. On the lower part of the monument are inscribed the names of 74 famous persons. (5) Bridle path (6) The Café Bauer is on the corner of Friedrichstrasse and Unten den Linden. (7) The Kaiser-Galerie (Passage) is roofed over by glass. (8) The famous exhibitions of Paris wax figures of world personages. (9) Madame Tussuad’s famous waxwork exhibition at London.
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France
Paris
Reformer
Valentin Ventura
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Ventura gives Rizal news of his trip to Europe and wishes to hear from him.

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France
Biarritz
Others
Nellie Boustead
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Miss Boustead breaks her relations with Rizal.
Note: This letter in English was published in the Philippines Herald, 29 December 1929, p. 3
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France
Biarritz
Others
Adelina Boustead
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Miss Boustead sends Rizal a postcard thanking him for a gift of a book. She writes in English.

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1876
March
26
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Grandma Illang

(1) Mrs. Basilia Bauzon de Leyba, an elderly relative residing in Manila. (2) In Rizal’s time one went from Manila to Calamba and vice versa on small steamers via the Pasig River. Napindan is the name of the mouth of the Pasig River on Laguna de Bay. (3) Ganta and cavan are dry measures, still in use. A cavan is equivalent to 75 liters, one cavan is 25 gantas.
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1876
July
2
Philippines
Manila
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Brothers and sisters
Bugler on Horseback - being drawn
(1) Rizal was then a boarding student at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila in the fifth year of the secondary course. (2) Panteleón Quintero who later married his younger sister Soledad. (3) His little sisters then Josefa, Trinidad, and Soledad. (4) His married sisters Narcisa (Mrs. Antonio López) and Lucía (Mrs. Mariano Herbosa). (5) Diminutive for Mariano Herbosa. (6) Emilio, the youngest son of Mr. And Mrs. Antonio López.
Details
1877
February
10
Philippines
Tanawan, Batangas
Family
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal


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1877


Philippines
Manila
Others
Eduardo Lete
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Four pesos a volume of poem A book by Jules Verne.
[01] Eduardo Lete was a classmate of Rizal at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila and brother of Enrique Lete, also a friend of Rizal. Later, in Spain, he added "de" to his name. [02] Mariano Catigbac (also spelled Katigbak), a friend of Rizal and brother of Miss Segunda Catigbac, a fellow student of Rizal’s sisters at the Colegio de la Concordia or Colegio de la Immaculada Concepcion, at Sta. Ana, a district of Manila.
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1877
March
19
Philippines
Manila
Others
Ricardo Aguado
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dedicated to Rizal by his classmate Ricardo Aguado 19 March 1877 ?

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1877
March
19
Italy
Rome
Others
Jacinto Febres, S.J.
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Advice of a former professor – Cultivate the “flowers of virtue”.

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1877
April
13
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Grandma Illang

(1) Theobrorma cacao, Linn. From which chocolate is made. (2) Eight reales made a peso. A real was an old Spanish silver coin.
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1877
May
21
Philippines
Manila
Others
Ricardo Aguado
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Luna’s house assaulted by bandits.

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1878
July
16
Philippines
Cebu
Others
Jose Vilaclara, S.J.
Dr. Jose P. Rizall
He asks Rizal for altar designs – Advises Rizal to frequent the sacraments – Invites him to spend his vacation at the Jesuit mission house.

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1878
September
15
Philippines
San Fernando, La Union
Others
Enrique Lete
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The brother of Eduardo Lete asks Rizal about a student conspiracy in which his brother is reported to be involved.

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1878
October
8
Philippines
San Fernando, La Union
Others
Enrique Lete
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Enrique Lete proposes an exchange of bobbin.

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1878
November
27
Philippines
Manila
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Enrique Lete
Rizal is studying painting, solfeggio, piano, singing, and fencing.
[01] Mariano Catigbac was Rizal’s friend and a brother of Miss Segunda Catigbac, a student at Concordia college, Manila, with whom Rizal fell in love. Catigbac married Miss Isabel Macarandang. [02] Rizal was already a first-year student of medicine and at the same time was studying painting and fencing. [03] Moro moro is the common name given to popular dramas where there are plenty of sword battles between Muslims and Christians. [04] This paragraph, as well as the first one, reveals Rizal’s sense of humor. 009. Mariano Catigbak, Lipa, Batangas, 24 June 1879 An invitation from Rizal to Kalamba’s town fiesta – Catigbac reports the birth of a son. 010. Felix Resurrección Hidalgo, Madrid, 15 October 1879 The School of Fine Arts has good professors but lacks adequate facilities. The Museo del Prado is marvelous.
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1879
June
24
Philippines
Lipa, Batangas
Others
Mariano Catigbac
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
An invitation from Rizal to Kalamba’s town fiesta . Catigbac reports the birth of a son.

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1879
October
10
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Saturnina
Dr. Jose P. Rizal


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1879
October
15
Spain
Madrid
Others
Felix Resurrección Hidalgo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The School of Fine Arts has good professors but lacks adequate facilities. The Museo del Prado is marvelous.
[01] In the original: cambales. Cambales is from the Tagalog word cambal meaning twins. In the Tagalog language the “s” is not added to form the plural. Cambales, therefore, is the Spanish plural form of the word. [02] He refers to the Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando at Madrid. [03] This is the Museo del Prado at Madrid. [04] Felix Resurrección Hidalgo (1855 – 1913) is one of the celebrated painters of the Philippines
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1880
July
27
Philippines
Manila
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Paciano

(1) Anastacio Banatin, son of Capitán Juan Banatin, gobernadorcillo of Calumba from 1867 to 1868.
Details
1880
July
30
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Paciano
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
A reptile for the Jesuit Fathers

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1881


Philippines
Manila
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Paciano

(1) Rizal studied surveying at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila and received a surveyor’s diploma in 1881. Apparently his brother had asked him to survey a piece of land belonging to the family.
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1881
January
2
Philippines
Manila
Family
Leonor Rivera
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
She explains why she has not written Rizal – She is happy to receive his letters.
[01] Leonor Rivera (1867-1893) was then a boarding student at the Colegio de la Immaculada Concepción, popularly called Colegio de la Concordia, established in La Concordia at Sta. Ana, Manila, former country-place of the donor and founder of the school, the philanthropist Mrs. Margarita Roxas de Ayala. Rizal’s sisters also studied here. [02] This is a formal closing of a Spanish letter. [03] Leonor Rivera used this code name as she wrote Rizal.
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1881
May
25
Philippines
Manila
Others
Cabrera, Banson, and Lansam
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s friends are waiting for him – They use the names of The Three Musketeers, Dumas’ celebrated novel.

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1881
December
28
Philippines
Manila
Family
Leonor Rivera
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
She chides Rizal for not writing her.
[01] Antipolo is a town now in Rizal Province that is famous for its miraculous Virgin of Peace and Good Voyage and a popular summer resort. [02] This is just a girlish letter. Leonor was then only 14 years old.
Details
1882
January
17
Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Silvester Ubaldo

(1) Husband of his sister Olimpia (Sra. Ipia). He was then an employee in the government general office of communications (Inspección General de Communicaciones), being stationed in Bulacan. He asks Rizal to work for the transfer to Calamba. Listed as 1883 in correspondence - L. Spittael
Details
1882
May
26
Philippines
Manila
Family
Paciano
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Effect of Rizal’s departure – Grief of his parents – Comments of the friars – The Diariong Tagalog – The real purpose of Rizal’s departure for Europe
(1) Real is the name of a barrio of Calamba where sugar-cane plantations were found.
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1882
June
7
Egypt
Suez Canal
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
Travel impressions -- Aden -- The Desert -- Suez -- The Canal -- His good health -- Expecting letters from home.
(1) He was Arabi Pasha, an army officer, who led a revolt against the foreigners in Egypt with the slogan, "Egypt for the Egyptians." The anti-foreign agitation began with riots in Alexandria in June 1882 in which fifty Christians were killed. The disorder spread and the British intervened with armed force. They bombarded Alexandria on 11 July 1882 and then landed troops that clashed with those of Arabi. On 13 September Arabi was finally defeated at Tel-el-Kebir. He was captured and sent to Ceylon.
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1882
June
23
Spain
Barcelona
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
Travel impressions -- Port Said -- Napoli -- Marseille Sightseeing -- Barcelona -- Visits factories of porcelain, glass, ceramics -- Sees many things that are applicable in the Philippines
(1) Belen is the Tagalog and Spanish name for Bethlehem. The Tagalogs also called Créche Belén the reproduction of Christ’s birthplace that Christian Filipinos put up in their homes at Christmas time. (2) Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807 - 1882), Italian patriot, who labored for the unification of his native country. (3) It is a cold, dry, violent northern wind of the Mediterranean provinces of France. (4) A measure of distance varying for different times and countries from 3.9 to 7.4 kilometers. (5) Tomás Cabangis of a wealthy family of Tondo, Manila, who was studying medicine at Barcelona. (6) Máximo Cuesta of Pangasinan, student of law at Barcelona. (7) A Jesuit priest at Barcelona to whom Rizal was recommended. (8) The gobernadorcillo or capitain of Calamba from 1867-1868 whose house stood in front of Rizal’s family homestead. The patron saint of the Calamba barrio on the lakeshore is St. Peter and St. Paul, 29th of June.
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1882
June
26
Philippines
Bulacan
Family
Silvester Ubaldo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s parents are sad on account of his departure -- Ubaldo wants to be transferred from Bulacan to Calamba.

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1882
June
30
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Vicente Gella
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal has separated from his family and friends to seek the welfare that we all desire”—News of Rizal is eagerly awaited—His friends and relatives are saddened by his absence—His family approves of his going abroad—Town fiesta of Kalamba

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1882
July
11
Philippines
Manila
Others
Jose M. Cecilio
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Receives letters of Rizal from Singapore, Point Galle, and Colombo – News of mutual friends.

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1882
July
24
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Paciano
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Paciano sends more news on Calamba’s town fiesta -- Family news -- Rizal’s allowance.
(1) A drug that causes sweating.
Details
1882
August

Philippines

Family
Narcisa Rizal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
More family news -- Rizal’s letters are eagerly awaited -- Lack of town news.
Emilio, Angélica (Icang), and Antonio (Tonio) are the names of the children of his sister Narcisa, married to Antonio López. That is España (Spain). This letter was translated from the Tagalog by Encarnacíón Alonza 14 July 1958.
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1882
August
24
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Antonio López
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Family news -- His brother-in-law, Antonio López, (1) generously offers to send Rizal money.
(1) Antonio López, husband of Rizal’s sister Narcisa. In the Philippines a political division of a municipality is called a barrio.
Details
1882
August
25
Philippines
Kalamba
Others
Fr. Leoncio López
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Wishes Rizal success in his studies – More on the fiesta of Kalamba – Cholera – Closing of the schools.

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1882
August
25
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Paciano
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s allowance -- Ravages of cholera -- Closing of schools at Manila
(1) Translated from the Spanish by Encarnación Alonza 14 July 1958.
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1882
August
28
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Jose M. Cecilio
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal is remembered by his friends at Manila—His fiancée Leonor Rivera feels deeply his absence—His essay El amor patrio (Love of Country) appears in Diariong Tagalog—Cholera in Manila—At Madrid Rizal can cooperate with other Filipinos there whose working for their country’s welfare—The friars in the Philippines are despotic—Rizal should study law.
(1) The landlord was Antonio Rivera, Rizal’s uncle and owner of the boarding house where Rizal stayed. Sometimes referred to as Don Antonio. (2) José M. Cecilio was an employee. (3) An expression in Tagalog meaning “full of jest”. (4) A card game. (5) It was customary to address the wife of an official with the feminine form of the husband’s title; thus, the wife of Capitán (municipal executive). (6) Leonor Rivera, Rizal’s fiancée.
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1882
September
12
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Basilio Teodoro Moran
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Basilio Teodoro Moran, publisher of Diariong Tagalog, reports to Rizal the censorship of his article El amor patrio—High praise for his literary work—Moran thinks Diariong Tagalog cannot live long on account of the indifference of the Filipinos—He will send regularly issues of it to Rizal—He requests Rizal to send him articles and news digest and appoints him staff writer.

Details
1882
September
15
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Paciano
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
More ravages of the cholera -- Earthquakes -- Work in Pansol -- Family news.
Saturnina (Sta. Neneng) married to Manuel Hidalgo. See the following letter, number 22. Anastacio Bonatin, son of Capitán Juan, gobernadorcillo of Calamba, 1867-1868.
Details
1882
September
16
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
José M. Ceciliio
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Misuse of funds assigned for the containment of the cholera epidemic—Closing of schools on account of the cholera—News of friends—Centenary of St. Theresa celebrated—Reiterates his advice to Rizal to study law—Italian opera accompany at Manila—Inauguration of the Carriedo Waterworks—Leonor Rivera’s tears—Death of Liceo Artístico Literario de Manila.
(1) A Camarin in the Philippines is a barn-like structure used more for storage than for human habitation. (2) A plan in which the popular Spanish actress Raguer starred. (3) Pansitada is a meal shared with friends where the main dish consists of Chinese noodles much appreciated by Filipinos. (4) A Spanish stanza consisting of ten verses of eight syllables. (5) Práxedes Julia Fernandez (1871-1919), a talented Filipino actress. (6) The Carriedo Waterworks. The Carriedo Fountain that adorns the Sampaloc rotunda, Manila, commemorates the waterworks for which the Spaniard Francisco Carriedo had donated the sum of 10,000. (7) Leonor Rivera. (8) The years are fleeting. (9) The Liceo Arístico - Literario de Manila. In 1879 it awarded Rizal the first prize for his poem A la Juventud Filipina (To the Philippine Youth).
Details
1882
September
24
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Family news -- Birth of Alfredo -- Simple baptismal ceremony -- Death of family friends.
(1) Father Leoncio López.
Details
1882
September
26
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Saturnina
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Nening wants to send Rizal a diamond ring -- He wants his family to write him in Tagalog

Details
1882
September
26
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Will keep Rizal informed of notable happenings at home

Details
1882
September
27
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Basilio Teodora Moran
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Basilio T. Moran reiterates his request that Rizal write for Diariong Tagalog—He also invites Dr. Gregorio Sanciangco to send articles.
(1) Mr. Gregorio Sanciango y Gozon in 1886 was a member of the committee called Juventud Escolar Liberal at Manila whose objective was to secure rights for the Filipino clergy. After the tragic events of 1872 he left for Spain to finish the law course and obtained the degree of Doctor of Civil and Canon Laws. In 1881 he published at Madrid El Progreso de Filipinas, cited by Rizal in his essay La indolencia de los Filipinos (The Indolence of the Filipinos). With separatist ideas he returned to the Philippines in 1884.
Details
1882
October

Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Tomás Cabangis
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Cabangis, Filipino medical student from Tondo, Manila, inquires about the Circulo Hispano-Filipino of Madrid - Note: There is no date given historically.

Details
1882
October
3
Spain
Barcelona
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Tomás Cabangis
Inquires about the special examinations – Forwards a letter to Rizal – Why he changed his boarding house.

Details
1882
October
5
Philippines
Bulacan
Family
Silvester Ubaldo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Ravages of the cholera in Bulacan -- Its origin -- Death of sister Maria (Silvester's sister Maria - Gilbert)
(1) San Nicolás and Tondo, here called towns, are really districts of Manila. (2)A Spanish sherry (3)Translated from the Tagalog by Encarnación Alzona 17 July 1958.
Details
1882
October
5
Philippines
Bulacan
Family
Olimpia Rizal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Family news -- More on the ravages of cholera -- She tells Rizal to try to come home soon.
(1) The telegraph station of which her husband was the officer-in-charge.
Details
1882
October
10
Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
Enrolled in medicine and law -- In good health but poor in money -- Attends meeting of Círculo hispano-filipino -- Would like to know five or six languages -- Enjoins her younger sisters to study.
(1) An association of Filipino students and Spaniards interested in Philippine affairs, founded shortly before Rizal’s arrival in Spain. It published a magazine with the support of Mr. Juan Atayde, a Spaniard born at Manila and a military officer. (2) Bagoong is a Philippine sauce made of small fish or shrimp with plenty of salt. (3) A Spanish mestizo, dubbed "Marquis of Pagong" (pagong is Tagalog for turtle) and a friend of Rizal at Manila. (4) A sister of his brother-in-law, Mariano Herbosa, who played the harp and sang. Her full name is Ursula.
Details
1882
November
4
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Tomás Cabangis
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Offers to send Rizal Baltazar’s Florante at Laura (1) -- Gregorio Sanciangco calls on him—Inquires about the professor of obstetrics at the Colegio de San Carlos at Madrid where Rizal is enrolled.
(1) The masterpiece of the renowned Tagalog poet, Francisco Baltazar or Balagtas. Rizal liked to read it to improve his command of the Tagalog language.
Details
1882
November
12
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Paciano
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s allowance is insufficient -- Paciano promises to increase it after the sale of their sugar crop.

Details
1882
November
13
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Josefa and Maria Rizal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s parents are losing their sight -- Slippers and beaded sandals for Rizal -- Family news
First part of letter was written by Josefa Rizal and the second part is by Maria Rizal. (1) A casco is a rather large river craft, partly covered, that take passengers and freight. These river craft plied between Manila and towns along the navigable rivers and lakeshores. (2) Tagalog for "Mamma" and "Papa."
Details
1882
November
13
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Mariano Herbosa
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The Calamba River -- Death of Diariong Tagalog
(1) A small boat. (2) A shade tree, Terminalia catappa, L. (3) The bilingual -- Tagalog and Spanish --newspaper founded by Marcelo H. del Pilar.
Details
1882
November
13
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Lucía Mercado
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Regrets not having talked with her brother before his departure -- Wants her son to emulate Rizal

Details
1882
November
25
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Tomás Cabangis
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
He has received a copy of the review published by the Círculo Hispano-Filipino at Madrid—Wishes to join the association.
1) Edited at Madrid by Mr. Juan de Atayde. Its first issue came out on 29 October 1882 and the second on 24 November 1882.
Details
1882
November
27
Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Barghosi, a human locomotive -- Behavior of the Madrid public

Details
1882
December
14
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Inquiring about the codes -- civil, criminal, administrative, and commercial

Details
1882
December
14
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Saturnina
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Family news -- Birth and baptism of a new nephew, Alfredo -- Calamba inundated -- Damage to crops -- A new, strange disease
(1) Pet name for Alfredo, her son.
Details
1882
December
15
Philippines
Manila
Others
Jose M. Cecilio
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Leonor is suffering from insomnia – Another epidemic: Beriberi – News of girl friends – Ravages of the typhoons – Anacleto del Rosario is going to study in Spain. Note: the original letter is badly damaged.
[01] Dr. Felipe Zamora. [02] Chinese noodles. [03] Dr. Gregorio Sanciango y Gozon, Filipino reformer, lawyer, and writer. He was the author of Progresso de Filipinas quoted by Rizal in his essay, “The Indolence of the Filipinos.” [04] Literally, “even love is not forgotten.” [05] “So then you be careful,” is a colloquial expression of Spanish-speaking Filipinos.
Details
1882
December
29
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Paciano
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
"Dry cholera" -- Poor milling -- Feast of St. Francis -- Rizal’s horse -- A prophetic dream? -- Something of politics
(1) Palay is unhusked rice. (2) Buyo consists of a tiny piece of betel nut, lime, and a piece of betel pepper mixed together and chewed. (3) An allusion to the actress La Raguer who came to the Philippines in 1880 and took into her theatrical company Filipinos like Práxedes Fernandez, Patrocinio Tagaroma, José Carvajal, Nemesio Ratia, and others, who became celebrated actors. (4) As referred to in letter 27. The Tagalog word pagong is turtle. A Spanish mestizo, dubbed "Marquis of Pagong" was a friend of Rizal at Manila.
Details
1882
December
30
Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Josefa Rizal
Asks his sisters to write him often -- Will wear Filipino costume at the carnival -- Regrets not having brought with him his nito salacot
(1) Ipil is a Philippine hardwood. Translated from the Tagalog by Encarnación Alzona 23 July 1958.
Details
1882
December
30
Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
María Mercado
Enjoins his sister María to save his letters to his parents and brothers -- And look up their former servants and help them -- Hopes to treat the eyes of his mother upon his return -- Rizal saw the comet seen by his father.
(1) My beloved parents and dear brothers, (2) Corruption of Colombo and España
Details
1882
December
30
Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Paciano
Living expenses at Madrid are higher than at Barcelona -- Importance of knowing European languages -- Invites young men with means to study abroad

Details
1882
December
30
Spain
Barcelona
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mr. Leandro Lopez
Rizal writes to a Calamba friend about the girls of Calamba – His impression of Spanish women.
[01] Literally “bean’s war.” It is a figure of speech for “a harmless action.”
Details
1883


Philippines
Calamba
Family
Paciano
Dear Brother
Improvement of the land at Pansol -- Do not displease the priests -- Fine arts instead of law, says the curate
Translated from the Spanish by Encarnación Alzona, 22 July 1958.
Details
1883
January
15
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Basilio Teodora Moran
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Sad story of the death of Diariong Tagalog—Sends Rizal another set of the paper—Hopes to republish it.

Details
1883
January
17
Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
Bust of Don Mercado. New Year celebration -- Madrid in the rain -- Fall of the Ministry -- Masquerade ball at the Alhambra -- Feast of San Antonio Abad -- Canon, a guitar celebrity -- Asks for picture of his parents -- Rizal tells brother to save the clay bust of their father made by him
(1) The noted literary man Gaspar Nuñez de Arce succeeded Leon y Castillo as the Minister of Colonies. (2) Water buffalo wallow. (3) Mr. Pablo Ortiga y Rey, a Spaniard, member of the Council of the Philippines. (4) Tapis is a kind of over-shirt, generally black, either silk or cotton, that Tagalog women used to wear. The women of the southern Visayan Islands were said to be suelta, that is, they didn’t wear tapis. (5) A bit of Rizalian satire. (6) A native of Biñan, Laguna, friend of Rizal. It was he who introduced the Noli me Tángére in Spain. He married a Spanish woman at Barcelona. When he returned to the Philippines, he joined the Revolution of 1896. He was also a notable chess player.
Details
1883
January
19
Philippines
Bulacan
Family
Silvestre Ubaldo and Olimpia Rizal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Silk handkerchiefs from the town of Baliwag for Rizal -- The friars hate Rizal for his article published in Diariong Tagalog
the arrticle is "Amor Patrio"
Details
1883
January
23
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Miguel Morayta
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Morayta invites Rizal to send him some of his literary works, either in prose or poetry, to be read in a program in honor of Giordano Bruno and the freedom of thought.
(1) He was a professor of history at the Universidad Central de Madrid, a liberal, and friend of the Filipino reformers in Spain. Rizal had been one of his students.
Details
1883
January
26
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Santiago Carrillo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s father would like his son to avoid displeasures and to come home soon.
(1) Federico Calero, Spaniard of Manila, a medical student, friend of Rizal. He did not finish the medical course, but he engaged in business. (2) The Paterno brothers were Antonio, Pedro, and Maximo.
Details
1883
January
29
Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Saturnina
Water treatment for infant's not always advisable - - Grateful for gifts -- Asks for the names of acquaintances and friends who have died of the plague and beriberi - Italian is sweet - Reasons for declining a Christmas gift.
(1) Florante at Laura, a story in Tagalog verse by the celebrated Tagalog poet Francisco Baltazar (1788 -1862), or Balagtas, who according to Rizal, “was as good a poet as a thinker.” (Noli Me Tángere, Berlin, 1887, p. 149). (2) Near Calamba where there is a spring noted for its medicinal waters, and a popular picnicking place. (3) A beverage made from the sap of palms, like the coconut palm, generally.
Details
1883
January
29
Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
Fine weather -- Death of the Circulo -- Balloon tragedy -- Declines a Christmas present --Studying Italian -- To perfect his French at Paris, English in London, German in Germany -- Ignorance about the Philippines in Spain

Details
1883
January
29
Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
European politics -- Nunez de Arcc, minister of colonies -- General Jovellas to the Philippines -- Proposed land reforms -- Pleasant weather

Details
1883
February
8
Philippines
Manila
Others
Jose M. Cecilio
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
News from the Tomasina House – Leonor is suffering – Comments on Manila lads and lasses – Filipinos in Spain excel in literature, according to Rizal.
[01] The boarding house owned by Mr. Antonio Rivera located on Santo Tomás Street, hence Casa Tomasina. (Tomasine House)
Details
1883
February
8
Spain
Barcelona
Others
Tomás Cabangis
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
News from Barcelona – He would like to finish the medical course and study other things at Madrid.

Details
1883
February
13
Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Paciano
Sinking of the Lipa -- Eagerness for home news -- Horseback -- riding at Barcelona -- Remembering the Calamba singers -- a sample of his Tagalog -- Scandals at the Madrid Court -- Inquiring about the reaction to a Filipino who married a Spanish woman -- Dinner at the home of the Paterno brothers.
(1) Celadora was a lay sisterhood that attended to church needs, and the teaching of the Christian Doctrine. The elders in the sisterhood are called Hermana who acted as the leaders. Rizal's mother was a celadora. (2) See note 3, letter 35, ante. (3) The Circulo hispano-filipino, See note 1, letter 27, ante. (4) English translation: With regard to the dreams that we talked about before at a pre-Christmas Mass. I've not forgotten them and in fact they have always regulated my conduct. Many of these who are here are always lacking in spirit and vigor, but I don't understand why they have no fixed purpose. Is it because of their youth or because they have not been deeply hurt yet? However, there are some who are like F. R. and B. V. who have hidden warmth that is also noticeable, like the smoke rising from a mountain with hidden fire. There are some here who are so exceedingly dull that they are the laughing stock and shame of their companions. Why are they allowed to go abroad? Their dullness reaches the limit, because they don't improve every day as they should, thus manifesting their dullness. They will go home devoid of the beautiful customs of our towns, which they have forgotten, and being the rage of the people here that they have picked up. (5) General Juan Prim y Prats (1814 - 1870) led the insurrection that broke out in 1865. It was suppressed and Prim sought refuge in exile. Later he returned, deposed Queen Isabella, then restored the monarchy. He was murdered on 27 December 1870. (6) Adobo is a favorite dish of the Filipinos. It consists of either pork, beef, or chicken, or all of them mixed together, cooked in vinegar, with salt, garlic, and pepper. (7) Fritada is fried meat or fish. (8) Sinigang is stewed fish, pork, chicken, or beef with vegetables, seasoned with salt, some sour tamarind or other sour fruit or leaves that abound in the Philippines. Filipinos relish it much.
Details
1883
March
14
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Trinidad Rizal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
She has stopped going to school -- Congratulations to Rizal on his ability to speak Italian after two month’s study

Details
1883
March
14
Philippines
Bulacan
Family
Josefa Rizal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Bulacan handkerchiefs -- Beaded step-ins -- Guava jelly

Details
1883
May
14
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Lucía Mercado
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
She asks Rizal for a prescription for the itch -- News about town acquaintances and relatives

Details
1883
May
14
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Mariano Herbosa
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s favorite chestnut horse -- Swiftest among the horses at Calamba

Details
1883
May
26
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Paciano
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Sugar crop -- Rizal asks permission to go to Paris -- a portrait of Rizal at Leonor’s home painted by Resurrection Hidalgo -- Death of Father Leoncio López, Calamba’s parish priest -- Town fiesta of Biñan -- Incident with the civil guard -- Feast of Corpus Christi -- No receipt for payment of land rent -- The Philippines is the most heavily taxed country in the world.
(1) Painted by the noted Filipino painter, friend of Rizal, “Felix Resurréccion Hidalgo (1855-1913). (2) Father Leoncio López. See Rizal’s letter number 55 infra. (3) Rizal resented this. See his letter number 74 infra.
Details
1883
May
29
Philippines
Manila
Others
Jose M. Cecilio
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s love affairs – Pi y Margall – News of young men and women of Manila Society – Wedding of Anacleto del Rosario – Examinations for aspirants.
[01] Saya here means the Filipino woman’s attire which girls put on when they become young ladies. Heretofore they wear short dresses in the European style. [02] Administrative Centers of Finance.
Details
1883
June
21
France
Paris
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
From Madrid to Paris -- A stroll through Paris -- Laennec Hospital -- Lariboisiere Hospital -- Jardin d’Acclimatation.
(1) Dr. Filipe Zamora, wealthy Filipino physician who was at Paris for specialization. Returning to the Philippines, he became a famous obstetrician and general practitioner. He also resided at Saigon, practicing his profession. (2) The Vendôme Column is 44 meters high covered with the bronze of 1,200 canons taken from the enemy by the Grand Army of Napoleon in 1805. (3) La Illustración Española y Americana, an illustrated magazine published at Madrid, to which Rizal’s family was a subscriber. (4) As a result of the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) France lost Alsance and Lorraine and she didn’t cease to mourn her loss until 1918 when she regained them after the First World War (1914-1918). Strasbourg is the capital city of Alsance. (5) A temple carved in the rock in Hyderabad, India. (6) Mariano Cunanan, wealthy landowner of Pampanga, who was then studying agriculture at Paris. It was he who offered to finance the Colegio Moderno that Rizal planned to establish at Hong Kong. (7) Named after the eminent French physician René Laennéc (1781-1826), discoverer of auscultation [a listening, often with the aid of a stethoscope, to sounds in the chest, abdomen, etc. so as to determine the condition of the heart, lungs, etc.]. (8) A naval base on the Criméa, laid siege during the Crimean War, 1854-1855. (9) A Filipino physician and noted sculptor, brother of Dr. T. H. Pardo de Tavera. (10) Also called mayang-paking in Tagalog, or Luzon brown weaver, Munie Cabanisi.
Details
1883
July

France
Paris
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
Tour of Paris continued -- The Bullier -- Musée de Grivín -- The Louvre Museum -- Its vastness and treasures.
(1) Cesar Cantu’s History of the World was a very popular book then. Rizal read it at the age of 12 when he was studying at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila. (2) Name of a powerful French noble family: Duke of Guise (1519 - 1563). Henri I de Lorraine (1550 - 1588), and others. (3) Jean de Bueil (1405 - 1480), called “The Scourge of the English,” associated with the glory of Jeanne d’Arc. (4) Cierre du Terrail, Lord Baynard (1473 - 1524), French captain, whose bravery and generosity aroused the admiration even of his enemies, winning him the appellation of “Knight without fear and without reproach.” (5) “Counted, weighed, divided,” the ominous words that appeared mysteriously on the wall of the banquet hall of King Balthazar.
Details
1883
July
5
France
Paris
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
Tour of Paris continued -- National Panorama -- Palace of Industry -- Hotel Dieu --Museum of Orfila -- Jardin des Plantes -- Luxembourg Palace -- Hotel des Invalides
(1) The Latin Quarter, the district in which are located the Sorbonne, Institute of France, and Luxembourg, famous for its Bohemian life. (2) An Italian showman who brought a troupe twice to the Philippines; once in 1882 and again in 1890 or 1891. (3) About the Panorama at Marseille, see his letter number 15 anté. (4) Rizal’s family possessed the biggest private library in Calamba. Dumas’ Count of Monte Cristo was widely read in the Philippines and Rizal read it when he was only 12 years old, a student at the Atenéo Municipal. (5) Named after Mathieu Orfila (1787-1853). French physician and chemist, who made important contributions to toxicology. (6) Tangantangan or Solanum sanctum; tuba, Croton tiglium; lumbang, Aleuritis molucca Willd. (7) Sperm whale. (8) An illustrated publication in Rizal’s home library at Kalamba. (9) Guillaume Lethiére (1760-1832). French painter. (10) Above the entrance to the chapel of the Hotel des Invalides were inscribed the following words: “Je désire que mes cendres reposent sur les bords de la Seine au milieu de ce peuple francais que j’ai tant aimé.” (“I wish my ashes to rest on the banks of the Seine amidst the French people I have loved so much.”) This was written by Napoleon at St. Helena, where he was exiled, in the codicil to his testament on 16 April 1821, twenty days before his death. His wish was fulfilled on 15 December 1840 when his bones were brought to Paris and deposited in the chapel of the Hotel des Invalides by order of King Louis Philippe of Orleans. (11) Geraud Christophe-Michel Duroc (1772-1844), French general and grand marshal under the empire / Count Henri -Gratien Bertrand (1773-1844), faithful aide-de-camp of Napoleon I who stayed with him during the period of his exile at Elba and St. Helena. It was he who brought Napoleon’s bones to Parish in 1840. / Vicomte Henri de la Tour d’Auvergne Turenne (1611 - 1675), French marshal. Marquis Sebastian de Vauban (1633 - 1707), French military engineer and marshal of France. / Jerome Bonaparte (1784 - 1860), king of Westphalia and marshal of France, brother of Napoleon I. Joseph Bonaparte (1768 - 1844), king of Spain (1801 - 1813), brother of Napoleon I.
Details
1883
July
20
France
Paris
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Paciano
Studying French at Paris -- Cost of living -- Regrets passing of Fr. Leoncio López -- The pro-friar Fr. Villafranca
(1) Father Leoncio López. See letter 50 ante. (2) Father Ambrosio Villafranca.
Details
1883
July
29
Philippines
Manila
Others
Rosauro de Guzman
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
José M. Cecilio (Chengoy) is promoted – begs Rizal to be his future compadre.

Details
1883
August
2
France
Paris
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents
Some monuments in Parish - Pantheon -- Jardin des Plantes -- Abbey of Cluny -- Julian Baths -- French national holiday -- Palace of Versailles.
(1) Epyornis is an ostrich-like bird whose eggs are a foot long and 9 inches in diameter, genus Aepyornis. (2) A pilon of sugar was sugar molded in large clay jars, weighing about 100 pounds. This was the way sugar was marked in the Philippines during the Spanish regime. (3) Or, langka Artocarpus integrifolia L. (4) Pipit is a Tagalog name for the northern willow warbler, Acanthopneuste borealis. (5) His nephews, son of Narcisa and Anotonio López. (6) Onzita was an old Spanish gold coin, the size of the present (1960) Philippine silver ten-centavo piece. .(7) See note, letter 5, anté. ( 8) It was in downtown Manila, a Chinese business district. The name of the street as well as its character remains to this day (1960). (9) Tagalog word meaning "dip"; that is a dip bath. (10) The state military academy in France, the equivalent of the American West Point Military Academy. (11) Rizal alludes to the cry of the French patriots for “Revenge” after the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) when the new German Empire (1871-1919) annexed the French provinces of Alsace and Lorraine.
Details
1883
September
11
Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents
Vacillating between the law course and the philosophy and letters course -- Madrid Summer disagrees with him -- Two Calamba youth -- Filipinos at Madrid -- Japanese Students -- Only one Filipino is studying agriculture -- Probable new minister of colonies.
(1) Leandro López, brother of Antonio López, Rizal’s brother-in-law, of promising musical ability. (2) The celebrated Filipino painter Juan Luna (1857-1899). Rizal wrote an article about him that appeared in the weekly La Ilustración, Barcelona, 28 February 1886. (3) Mariano Cunanan of Pampanga. See letter 51, ante.
Details
1883
September
15
Philippines
Manila
Others
Jose M. Cecilio
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Paris is the grand city, according to Zamora. Rizal now speaks French. News of Manila lasses. Leonor again. Inquiring about Rizal’s literary activities.
[01] Central Administration of Revenue and Property. [02] General Administration. [03] Pilar here is a proper name; but literally it means pillar. [04] Quiotan, near the house of the Pantojas.
Details
1883
October
16
Philippines
Lipa
Reformer
Mariano Catigbac
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Nothing happens at Lipa-No news, except the havoc wrought by the cholera -Appearance of beri-beri. Rizal is one of three excellent Filipinos at Madrid Sends Rizal silk handkerchiefs woven in Lipa.

Details
1883
October
28
Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Francisco Rizal Mercado
Madrid weather -- Living with Lete and the Llorentes -- Gymnastic lessons -- Drawing classes -- Christmas Greetings -- Christmas at Madrid -- Eager for family news -- Political trends in Eager for family news -- Political trends in Europe -- The Columbus banquet.
(1) Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid. (2) Don Augustín Sáez, director of the school of fine arts in Manila. (3) Poto bombóng or puto bumbóng is steamed ground glutinous rice cooked in bamboo joints about six inches long and seasoned with a little salt and eaten with sugar and grated fresh coconut. Salabat is a beverage made of sugar and water flavored with ginger. It is the beverage that accompanies the puto bombóng. The puto is cooked on the sidewalks of the streets leading to the church. (4) He was Aristeo Ubaldo (1883 - 1954), who later became a noted ophthalmologist and professor at the College of Medicine, University of the Philippines. (5) Posada Herrera succeeded the ministry of Sagasta Martinez Campos (8 February 1881 to 13 October 1883). (6) American here means Latin American.
Details
1883
November
21
Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
Unfair treatment of Filipino engraver Figueroa in the filing of a professional chair at the Acadamia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando -- Rumors of war between France and Germany -- Announcing his graduation from the medical college in 1884-- Republican demonstration at Madrid
(1) Melecio Figueroa, considered one of the best Filipino engravers, who studied at the Academia de Bellas Artes de Sa.n Fernando at Madrid. (2) These are different kinds of Chinese noodles that are relished by Filipinos.
Details
1883
November
27
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Teodora Alonso
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal asks for family pictures -- Maternal solicitude -- God’s blessings on the Rizal family

Details
1883
November
27
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Josefa Rizal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Always thinking of Rizal -- Present of handkerchiefs from Catigbac -- Regards from friends
1 Mariano Catigbac or Katigbak, Rizal’s friend. 2 Kundiman is a plaintive Philippine folksong
Details
1883
November
27
Philippines
Calamba
Family
María Mercado
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Some news

Details
1883
November
27
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Trinidad Rizal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Suffering from intermittent fever -- Pilgrimage to Antipolo
(1) Town where the miraculous Virgin of Peace and Good Voyage is venerated.
Details
1883
November
27
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Sofía López
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dandoy is sick -- Leonor is pitiful
(1) Her pet name is Chopeng and she is a sister of his brother-in-law Antonioi López and his friend Dandoy or Leonardo López. She also sings. (2) Leonor Rivera, Rizal’s fiancée.
Details
1883
November
27
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Olimpia Rizal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Her son, Aristeo
(1) Olimpia Rizal was married to Silvestre Ubaldo
Details
1883
November
27
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Narcisa Rizal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Reasons for not writing Rizal -- Family News

Details
1884


Philippines
Binondo
Reformer
Felipe Zamora
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dr. Zamora sends a draft to Rizal to page for books, subscriptions and music sheets.

Details
1884


Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Antonio López
Rizal resents the lending of his books -- Urges his family to save his books.
MARKED AS LETTER # 74 wCH IS GROUPED WITH THE(1884?)ETTERS (1) Chopeng is a pet name for Sofia López, a sister of Antonio López, Rizal's brother-in-law. (2) He refers to a lieutenant of the civil guard who took with him three books from the family library when he left the town, according to Paciano's letter (No. 50 ante.) This fragment of a letter, without date, address and signature, by its content seems to be written in 1884 and addressed to his brother-in-law Antonio López, according to the letter's son Leoncio López Rizal. Translated from the Spanish by Encarnación Alzona on 7 September 1959.
Details
1884
February
10
Philippines

Family
Paciano
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Money for the doctorate -- He wants Rizal to enlist as Filipino physician should the Franco-Prussian War break out -- One should not be ashamed of his nationality.

Details
1884
March
9
Philippines
Manila
Others
Jose M. Cecilio
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
News of friends – Offers his new house to Rizal – recommends Ceferino de Leon, law student going to Spain and Rizal’s admirer – Leonor Rivera – A student orchestra.
[01] Leonor Rivera, daughter of Mr. Antonio Rivera, who owned the boarding house called Casa Tomasina. [02] “O” stands for Orang, the pet name of Leonor Valenzuela.
Details
1884
April
17
Philippines
Manila
Others
Jose M. Cecilio
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Ceferino de León – Holy Week in Manila – Medical students failed – Congratulates Rizal in advance on his forthcoming graduation as a physician – Miciano criticizes Rizal’s Junto al Pasig.
[01] Salubong is the name of the procession held on Easter Sunday commemorating the meeting between the Mother and her resurrected Son. It features the lifting up of the mourning veil of the Mother by a child dressed as an angel.
Details
1884
June
9
Philippines
Manila
Others
Jose M. Cecilio
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
A literary controversy over Junto al Pasig – Valentín Bautista defends him – News of friends.
* [The following understanding of Serosity come from medical books of the period – rly] “‘Serosity’ is an old term for the serum of the blood.” [Source: The New Sydenham Society’s Lexicon of Medicine and the Applied Sciences. (Based on Mayne’s Lexicon), vol. V (London: The New Sydenham Society, MDCCCXCIX {1899})]. || [For “Serous Fluid or Serum”: “In physiology the liquid portion of the blood, which separates after coagulation, is named the serum, and this is taken as a type of fluids of more or less similar composition, consisting of a watery solution of albumin with certain salts. In pathology we have to deal with serum outside the blood-vessels, either as a more dropsical accumulation, or as a consequence of inflammation. It may be thus met with in the cellular tissue under the skin or a mucus membrane, and in other parts: in serious cavities; in certain organs, as the lungs and the ventricles of the brain; or as a discharge from the surface of the skin, as in cases of eczema. Its precise composition varies considerably under different circumstances. Clinically serous fluid is, as a rule, of most importance on account of its mechanical effects, when it accumulates in quantity in various parts, and these effects may be most serious. Its presence can usually be detected by objective or physical examination. The treatment required will either that for dropsy or inflammation, modified by local considerations, according to the principles laid down in other special articles.” By Frederick T. Robins. A Dictionary of Medicine Including General Pathology, General Therapeutics, Hygene, and the Disease Peculiar to Women and Children. Seventh Edition. Richard Quain, editor (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1884), page 1421.]
Details
1884
June
27
Philippines
Lipa Batangas
Reformer
Mariano Catigbac
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Leonor Rivera is languishing Villa-Abrille speaks well of Rizal Advises Rizal to make the most of his opportunity to study. His family is behind him. Receives Spanish papers sent by Rizal. He believes Rizal is destined to soar.
(1) Francisco Villa-Abrille, friend of Rizal. See letters 319 and 320. (2) Balo is a Tagalog term for widow or widower. The"ng" is added for euphony. Quicay is a common pet name for Francisca.
Details
1884
June
28
Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
Rizal's graduation as physician -- Received congratulations -- Brilliant examination at the Universidad Central
(1) He was Miguel Morayta, professor of history, liberal, and friend of the Filipinos. (2) At the banquet in honor of the Filipino painters Juan Luna and Felix Resurrección Hidalgo held on 25 June 1884, Rizal delivered a brilliant speech, though he had little time to prepare for it, being in the midst of his final examinations. He received repeated and prolonged applause. L On that same day he received the first prize in Greek, a high academic distinction but he was then penniless and did not eat the whole day. Read Reminiscences and Travels of Jose Rizal, Rizal Centennial Edition, 1961, p. 94.
Details
1884
August
29
Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
Asks his family if they want him to enroll for the doctorate in medicine -- The cost of the course -- Swindling of a young Filipino in Madrid
(1) A town in the Province of Laguna. (2) Guides who explain the history and chief features of a place to sightseers.
Details
1884
August
31
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Jose M. Cecilio
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s speech at the banquet of Madrid in honor of the Filipino painters, Juan Luna and Felix P. Hidalgo favorably commented in Manila Leonor Rivera again -- As a writer Rizal is assured of immortality.
(1) They have the same name, José; hence tocayo, or namesake. (2) Leonor Rivera, daughter of Don Antonio Rivera, referred to as landlord.
Details
1884
September
30
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Jose M. Cecilio
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Receipt of copies of the review Los Dos Mundos in which Rizal’s speech is published Paciano, Rizal’s brother, complains of poor mail service.Is Rizal going to study law, now that he is already a physician? -- Knowledge of law and languages is important Felipe Zamora inquires about Rizal’s books.
(1) Also spelled Kundiman, folksong. Cundangan, literally meaning “because” is used facetiously to rhyme with Kundiman. (2) A vara is about 2.8 feet, a unit of length.
Details
1884
November
5
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Paciano
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Local comments on Rizal's speech at the Luna and Resurrection Hidalgo banquet -- Their effect on his mother -- Low price of sugar -- Bad times -- Rizal's family homestead almost burnt down -- Rizal asks permission to study in Germany -- The new parish priest and his sense of humor.
(1) Panguingue is a popular card game in the Philippines. It is a favorite pastime of Filipinos, especially women. Spanish playing cards are used in it.
Details
1884
November
16
Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
Dark future for Philippine sugar -- Spain seeking a market for sugar in the United States -- Rizal wishes to return home to save his family more sacrifices -- He wants to work and help the family

Details
1884
November
26
Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
Reiterates his desire to return home soon -- He does not need the doctorate, inasmuch as he has no hope of getting a professorship -- Would like to study some trades and visit famous clinics in ophthalmology -- Huge demonstration of liberal students -- The police attack the University -- Bloodshed in the university building -- Resignation of the rector -- Rizal criticizes the new rector -- He would not want his diploma to be signed by him.
(1) Apparently Rizal as already aware that the Spaniards in the Philippines were watching him, knowing his patriotic sentiments. Hence, he would like to avoid unpleasant incidents. (2) Dr. Miguel Morayta, professor of history at the Universidad Central delivered the address at the opening of the academic year in which he dwelt on the academic freedom of the university professor, limited only by his prudence. (3) The name of the rector who supported Morayta was Francisco de la Pisa Pajares. (4) Ministro de Formento.
Details
1884
December
11
Philippines
Manila
Family
Teodora Alonso
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
"Don't meddle in things that can give me displeasure," says the mother -- "Don't fail in your duties as a true Christian; at times knowledge leads us to perdition." -- A little note from Leonora (Taimis)
(1) Leonora Rivera, Rizal's Fiancée
Details
1884
December
17
Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
The student agitation worsening -- Decline of Philippine sugar trade -- Rizal is not receiving his allowance --His expenses
(1) Consejo de Filipinas, an advisory body presided over by the minister of colonies, with one vice president, a secretary, and twelve members, all Spaniards. Pablo Ortiga y Rey, mentioned often by Rizal in his letters, was vice president at that time.
Details
1885




Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Teodora Alonso
Rizal assures his mother of his prudence -- He prefers to live in obscurity -- He trusts in God -- He believes in the fundamental principles of the Catholic religion.
MARKED AS LETTER # 78 GROUPED WITH THE 1885 LETTERS WHILE HE WAS IN SPAIN
Details
1885


Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Paciano
He is uncomplaining -- Would like to earn his living to cease being a burden to his family -- Difficulty of obtaining employment in Spain -- Politics controls everything -- Manuel work is considered humiliating -- Though a Spanish subject, Rizal regards himself as a foreigner in Spain -- In financial straits he may be obliged with regret to sell his ring and books -- Would rather go home now than later. (1)
(1) Fragment of a Rizal letter to his brother Paciano. (2) Postgraduate course in medicine and philosophy and letters. (3) Valentin Ventura, a wealthy Filipino, residing at Madrid. (4) He refers to the economic crisis the Philippines was suffering.
Details
1885
January
1
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Paciano
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Paciano is against Rizal's return -- He may establish himself at Hong Kong -- Try to get some kind of employment -- Paciano asks for data on beet sugar in Europe -- Write to our parents things that will please them, he advises Rizal.
(1) Literally "a cartridge box in the cannon." The Spanish saying is Quien manda, manda y cartuchera en el cañon; that is, "He who rules gives the orders," signifying blind obedience.
Details
1885
January
9
Philippines
Manila
Others
Jose M. Cecilio
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rivalry over Rizal continues President of the Section of Literature and Languages at the Universidad Central de Madrid News about girls Rizal’s graduation Gracio Gonzaga admires Rizal’s homage to Luna and Hidalgo published in Los Dos Mundos Regrets that Rizal will not study law.
[01] Manila, as used here, means the Walled city. Popularly, only the walled city was Manila, the outlying districts being called by their own names, as Binondo, Sta. Cruz, etc. [02] Alipato is a Tagalog term meaning a flying spark or a flash. [03] A magazine published in Madrid in which Rizal’s speech first appeared.
Details
1885
April
18
Philippines
Manila
Others
Jose M. Cecilio
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Love affairs – Which of the two Leonors would you choose? Rizal asks – Reply: Leonor Rivera – Quarrel between Aristón Bautista and six Spaniards.
[01] Leonor Rivera.
Details
1885
April
25
Philippines
Albay
Family
Silvester Ubaldo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Ubaldo wants to be assigned to Calamba -- He asks Rizal to write to Father Faura about it.
(1) Father Federico Faura, S.J., was the director of the Observatory, who had been Rizal's teacher at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila.
Details
1885
June
12
Philippines
Albay
Family
Olimpia Rizal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
She asks Rizal to work for her husband's transfer to Calamba to be near her parents.

Details
1885
July
16
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Paciano
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal complains of the irregularity of the remittance of his allowance -- He will go to Germany or England to study ophthalmology -- Something on the management of the Calamba Estate -- The splendor of the religious processions proceed unabated despite crisis and hunger
(1) Mrs. Basila Benzene de Lye, a relative of the Rizal family (2) The Hacienda de Calamba (Calamba Estate) consisting of the town of Calamba and the surrounding agricultural lands, belonging to the Order of St. Dominic (Domingo de Gunman, 1170 - 1221 or Dominican Order, one of the four powerful and wealthy religious corporations in the Philippines. The other three are the Franciscan, Augustinian and Recollect orders. (3) In the Philippines, rain in May is rare, being the dry season. (4) Falla under the Spanish regime was the fine paid by Filipinos for leaving work.
Details
1885
July
16
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Saturnina
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Sends Rizal 100 pesos for the doctorate -- Family news -- Advises Rizal to study obstetrics -- Will send him a picture of her son Alfredo

Details
1885
July
16
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal resents not having received letters from his brothers -- Family news.

Details
1885
July
30
Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents
He would like to serve physician in Spanish towns infested with cholera or travel in France, Switzerland, or Holland -- Awaiting parental consent
(1) A fragment of a Rizal letter.
Details
1885
August
11
Spain
Madrid
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Rincon
Rizal sympathizes with a Spaniard of long residence in the Philippines – The Filipinos remember only kindness – Thy easily forget insults – Rizal enjoys hearing from those who had been in his country.

Details
1885
August
26
Philippines
Albay
Family
Silvester Ubaldo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Letters of recommendation to Barrantes and Father Faura regarding his transfer to Calamba -- News about relatives in Albay.

Details
1885
September
10
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Paciano
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
They send him money -- Price of sugar is fairly good.

Details
1885
September
13
Philippines
Albay
Family
Silvester Ubaldo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Father Faura replies sharply -- He is disgusted with Rizal and Ubaldo.

Details
1885
September
30
Philippines
Manila
Others
Jose M. Cecilio
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Fashion magazine for Leonor – An opinion on Paterno’s novel Ninay – Leonor chosen? – News of the love affairs in Manila – Rizal, Licentiate in Medicine and in Philosophy and Letters – Approaching fiestas.
[01] Secretary, municipal office. [02] Gobernadorcillo is a municipal executive. [03] In the Philippines a mestizo is a Filipino of mixed blood such as a Spanish-Filipino, a Chinese-Filipino, etc. [04] Novenarios are the daily prayers for nine consecutive days proceeding the day of the saint to be celebrated. Held in the Church they are attended by people from all walks of life. They are an occasion to meet friends.
Details
1885
October
7
Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents
Rizal plans to go to Germany where the cost of living is lower than in England -- Valentin Ventura sends him money -- The German language would be useful -- "Our duty is to love our country. . ."
(1) In 1885 the German Empire pursued a vigorous policy of colonial expansion. Finally in 1899 Spain sold Germany to the Caroline Islands including the Ladrone, except Guam, for $4,000,000. The original letter is not so clear as to October 1 or 7, but the date could be the 7th because the content of the letter says "On the 1st of this month" - L. Spittael
Details
1885
October
9
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Ceferino de León
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The Filipinos at Madrid congratulate Rizal, who was then at Paris, on his article published at Barcelona. NOTE: The Sole Surviving Letter of 1885 is from Ceferino de León to José Rizal
(1) Pet name for Maximino Paterno, one of the Paterno brothers studying at Madrid. (2) He refers to the Filipinos at Madrid. (3) The Tagalog term for Chinese. The Filipinos at Madrid sometimes referred to themselves as Inchic. (4) That is, the Filipinos of Paris.
Details
1885
October
29
Spain
Madrid
Others
Ceferino de León
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
De León receives Rizal’s financial help – Grateful to Rizal – Rizal on his way to Paris.
[01] Maximo Paterno [02] Valentin Ventura [03] Name of the newspaper published by Miguel Morayta, friend of the Filipino reformers. [04] Dr. Maximo Viola.
Details
1885
November

Spain
Madrid
Others
Ceferino de León
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
A box of books has been sent to Rizal.
[01] Suya in Manila is a colloquial term for Chinese. [02] Eduardo de Lete.
Details
1885


Spain
Madrid
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Paciano
Rizal suggests the abandonment of costly but useless feasts -- Filipino women are less advanced than the men -- He is worried about the evil consequences of fanaticism -- The older generation is beginning to support the younger -- Rizal's impression of the culture of the Europeans.

Details
1885
November
27
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Paciano
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Why he was against Rizal's trip to Paris -- Rizal sends an image of Christ and a chess set to his family -- A letter of Rizal that made his mother shed tears -- Sale of Rizal's chestnut horse -- Low price of sugar -- Paciano always an optimist.

Details
1885
December
4
France
Paris
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents
Rizal is registered at Dr. Wecker's clinic -- Learning much about eye diseases -- Dr. Wecker esteems Rizal and invites him to his house.

Details
1885
December
19
Spain
Madrid
Others
Ceferino de León
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Preparing another New Year’s banquet at Madrid, but the Tagalogs have no money – Regards from Govantes – Asks for news of the Filipino colony at Parish – Orders a French novel.
[01] Pedro de Govantes, Spanish lawyer. [02] Valentin Ventura.
Details
1886


Germany
Heidelberg
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Taken from the book "Reminiscenses".
Taken from the book Reminiscenses". Transcribed in W.E. Retana:Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal, Madrid 1907 pages 100 - 102. Letter is taken from Rizal's notebook "Clinica" in French.
Details
1886
January
1
France
Paris
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents
Christmas in Paris - A pair of Grecian vases painted by Rizal -- Christmas in Paris --Good behavior of French children -- The mansion of Dr. Wecker -- Rizal is going to Germany where there are very good professors -- Already writes French as he does Spanish --He already can perform all kinds of eye operations -- Winter in Paris -- Eye operations by Dr. Wecker -- Pardo de Tavera family at Paris -- Rizal wrote the illustrated story of the monkey and the turtle in Paz Pardo de Tavera's album.
1) Miss Paz Pardo de Tavera, later Mrs. Juan Luna, resided at Paris with her family. Doña Juliana Gorricho was her mother; Felix and Trinidad Pardo de Tavera, both physicians, were her brothers. Felix became also a renowned sculptor and Trinidad, a man of letters and statesman. (2) In payment for his paintings, The Battle of Lepanto, bought by the Senate of Spain. (3) Some allege that the natives of Parañaque often boast or exaggerate.
Details
1886
January
2
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Ceferino de León
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The traditional banquet of the Filipinos was held on 31 December at Madrid—Rizal’s absence was noted—His letter of adhesion was read—In every speech of the Filipinos there was a toast dedicated to the absent Rizal—The speeches of Llorente, Lete, López Jaena, and Evaristo Aguirre were very good.
[1] Name of a pawnshop at Madrid. [2] The fashion magazine was for Leonor Rivera, sent by Rizal.
Details
1886
February
2
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Mariano Herbosa
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Family news -- Death of José -- Milling season -- Good price for sugar -- Rising land rent
* The pet name of Josefa, a sister of Rizal.
Details
1886
February
2
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Lucía Mercado
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Many bandits -- Gay novena -- Study painless childbirth -- Come home soon.

Details
1886
February
7
Germany
Heidelberg
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
María Mercado
German and French housekeeping -- The dining room must be gay, attractive, and pleasant -- Suitable decorations for the dining room -- Table arrangement In his eagerness to educate his sisters, Rizal describes dining room arrangement and decorations he had seen in Europe in this letter to his sister, María, whom he considered a bright woman.

Details
1886
February
9
Germany
Heidelberg
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
Rizal's arrival at Heidelberg -- The German student -- Student duels and associations -- Impressions of Heidelberg.
(1) From 1871 to 1919 part of this frontier town belong to France and part to Germany. (2) This is a large astronomical clock. An angel strikes a bell for the quarter hours; a genius reverses his hour-glass every hour; a symbolic deity steps out of his niche each day -- Apollo on Sunday, Diana on Monday and so one; each day at noon the Twelve Apostles march around the figure of the Savior, while in the morning a cock on the highest pinnacle stretches his neck, flaps his wings, and crows.
Details
1886
February
14
Spain
Madrid
Others
Ceferino de León
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Receives Rizal’s letter from Strasbourg – About the Filipino colony in Madrid – Asks Rizal to tell him about the German people.
The Suyas [a colloquial term for the Chinese but here reference to Filipino colleagues of Rizal who are mistaken for Chinese in Europe – rly] are all well; they send you many regards.
Details
1886
February
26
Germany
Heidelberg
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
Rizal attending Dr. Otto Becker's Augen Klinik -- Illumination of the Castle -- A tour of the Castle -- Rizal continues to study German.
Rizal arrived in Heidelberg Feb 3. He mentions in the letter he had been working 13 days already in the clinic so this means that he wrote this letter on the `17th and also the letter says in the last paragraph "Tomorrow I will move to the new address…" The plaque in Heidelberg says he moved there on the 18th. * L. Spittael (1) Johann Heinrich Vows (1751-1826), German poet and translator of the Iliad, Odyssey, etc. (2) Philip Schwartzert Melanchton (1497-1560), German Lutheran theologian professor, and religious reformer. (3) Awits are stories in verse. Awit also means song. It's a Tagalog term. (4) Rizal refers to José Tuason, teacher, poet and playwright, who lived at Navotas, now in Rizal Province. A native of Balanga, Bataan, he was the author of the popular song Ang magtanim ay hindi biro, of the poems Ang Matandang Sariwa. Awit ng Manananim, a play entitled Mga Siphayo ng Pag-ibig, and others.
Details
1886
February
27
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Narcisa Rizal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Family affairs -- "I should like you to become a master oculist".
(1) Singao is a Tagalog term meaning inflammation.
Details
1886
March
2
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Pablo Ortiga y Rey
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Two letters from Rizal at Paris and Heidelberg—Paintings of Luna and Hidalgo—Spoliarium—Germany, the country of fantastic tales and traditions.
[1] Pablo Ortiga y Rey, a Spaniard, who was for sometime president of the Consejo de Filipinas, an advisory council to the Madrid government. He was friendly towards the Filipinos who frequented his home. [2] Son and daughter respectively of Pablo Ortiga y Rey.
Details
1886
March
2
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Ceferino de León
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
He deplores the lack of fellowship among the Filipinos since Rizal left—Calls the German students’ duel “semi-barbaric”—A painting—Spoliarium—By Juan Luna bought by the government of Barcelona.
(1) [1] Luna’s painting, Spoliarium, obtained first prize at the Madrid Exposition of 1884.
Details
1886
March
11
Germany

Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Trinidad Rizal
Impression of German women -- Advice to his sister -- Read and read attentively -- Knowledge should be the principal adornment of women

Details
1886
March
11
Germany
Heidelberg
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
Winter in Heidelberg -- Continues studying ophthalmology and German -- The Fackelzug -- Carnival -- he practices at the hospital, but he would like to return to Paris, to Dr. Wecker's clinic.

Details
1886
March
19
Spain
Madrid
Others
Ceferino de León
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Greetings on his Saint’s Day – Loss of personal effects – Inquires about Rizal’s plans.

Details
1886
March
26
Germany
Heidelberg
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
Spring at Heidelberg -- Rapid progress in the study of German

Details
1886
April
24
Germany
Heidelberg
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Pastor Ullmer
Rizal goes to Wilhelmsfeld to learn how to speak good German – He would like to lodge in Pastor Ullmer’s house.

Details
1886
May

Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Felipe Zamora
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dr. Zamora advises Rizal’s parents not to let him return to the Philippines With his vast knowledge he would be mistrusted If he insists oncoming home, he should first change his nationality.

Details
1886
May

Philippines
Manila
Others
Ceferino de León
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Leonor remains in Dagupan – More news about friends – Asks Rizal for a favor.

Details
1886
May
23
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Paciano
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
He sends Rizal money -- Paciano is planning to abandon Pansol. -- Asks Rizal to send him a remedy for malaria.

Details
1886
May
28
Philippines
Madrid
Reformer
Ceferino de León
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s ring is still at the pawnshop, Palacio—Ceferino de León plans to visit Paris.
[1] Luis Yangco, later called Capitán, a wealthy Filipino businessman.
Details
1886
June
9
Germany
Wilhelmsfeld
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
Rizal has received neither money nor letters from home -- Would like to go home and help the family -- In Europe postal employees are honest.

Details
1886
June
26
Germany
Heidelberg
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Pastor Ullmer
Rizal’s difficulty in changing Spanish money – He is grateful for the kindness of Pastor Ullmer’s family.

Details
1886
June
27
Spain
Madrid
Others
Ceferino de León
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Financial difficulties of Rizal.

Details
1886
July
7
Spain
Madrid
Others
Ceferino de León
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
No occurrence in the Madrid colony – He is determined to spend summer at Paris.

Details
1886
July
11
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Silvester Ubaldo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Family news -- Olimpia received a letter from Rizal.

Details
1886
July
14
Germany
Heidelberg
Others
F. Zeferenz and E. Arnirum
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The German Chess Club notifies Rizal of his admission as a member of the club. This letter is published in Spanish in Retana’s Vida y escritos del Dr. José Rizal (Madrid, 1907) page 104. Rizal is mistakenly addressed as a “law student.”

Details
1886
July
18
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Paciano
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Description of the Calamba fiesta - Rizal is advised to study hydrotherapy.
(1) Nemesio Ratia and Praxedes (Teyeng) Fernández, were both celebrated Filipino actors. (2) Calumbibit or Kalumbibit (Frutex Globulorurn Klitsji.)
Details
1886
July
31
Germany
Heidelberg
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal compliments Blumentritt with a copy of Rufino Baltazar Hernández, Aritmética, written in Tagalog and Spanish.
(1) Rufino Baltazar Hernández, Aritmética. 1st edition. Manila, Imprenta del Cole o de Santo Tomás, 1868. 4°, 224 pages, in two columns. In Tagalog and Spanish.
Details
1886
August
16
Germany
Leipzig
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Gift of two books from Blumentritt . At his service in regard to Tagalog- His knowledge can be of use to him as much as the grammars of the friars - He could send Blumen- tritt works of more value than those published by Spanish travelers - "He who does not know his own language. . . ."

Details
1886
August
22
Germany
Leipzig
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Tagalog vocabulary by Blumentritt - Rizal wants to meet Kern - And to buy books in Vienna - He will study Dutch "because the Dutch have written much about us" - The friars.- Worldly and heavenly riches - "For our estates they would give us heavenly ones." - If Blumentritt could study life in our vil- lages - Christianity is more grand and sublime in Europe. Catholicism is more beautiful than Protestantism.
(1) Vocabulario tagalo-alemán. (2) Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera (1857-1925), Filipino physician, distinguished scholar and contemporary of Rizal. H ís works at that time were Contribución para el estudio de los alfabetos filipinos (1884) and La medicina en la nsla de Luzón (1884).
Details
1886
August
27
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Paciano
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
He inquires about the cost about printing a a work in Leipzig - He wants to sell Rizal's horse for 25O pesos -- Locust infestation.

Details
1886
August
29
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Mariano Herbosa
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Family news - Onerous system of taxation and rentals - A receipt which is not a receipt - Locusts - Rizal's father will send him money for the- doctorate and purchase of medical instruments -- Patients waiting for Rizal.

Details
1886
August
29
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Lucía Mercado
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Family news -- Longing for his return

Details
1886
September
15
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Evaristo Aguirre
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Thanks Rizal for a copy of La Ilustración of Barcelona containing Rizal’s article on Juan Luna—Grateful for Rizal’s good opinion of his speech at the December 1885 banquet—Barcelona newspaper published Rizal’s article—Rizal pleased with Aguirre’s speech at the banquet of December 1885 -- Rizal is translating William Tell in Tagalog
(1) [1] He alludes to Noli me tángere which Rizal finished writing in Germany. (2) [2] William Tell translated into Tagalog by Rizal. (3) [3] Cauit is the pseudonym of Evaristo Aguirre, son of a Spaniard, who grew up in Kawit, Cavite. He was a friend and contemporary of Rizal.
Details
1886
September
26
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Evaristo Aguirre
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Unity among the Filipinos is imperative for the triumph of their cause—Will send Rizal copies of newspapers containing articles on the Philippines—Noli me tángre—Need of undertaking a campaign in the Philippines to awaken the people—Sends Rizal sketches of Fort Santiago and Bilibid—Villaruz, Filipino student of engineering from Capiz.
(1) [1] That is, an unexpected attack by military men. He refers to an abortive uprising in Madrid. (2) [2] Many words are missing in this letter as published in the Epistolario Rizalino, I, pp. 195-202.
Details
1886
October
2
Germany
Leipzig
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Tagalog version of Schiller's drama - Works of Meyer in Bibliotheca Philippina - "Everything referring to my native country interests me greatly." - On the Igorrotes of Dr. Hans Meyer - In order to learn the secret of German verbs - "To sit once at your table is enough honor for me."
(1) Or, Dr. A. B. Meyer.
Details
1886
October
12
Germany
Leipzig
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Paciano
Rizal' s Tagalog version of Wilhelm Tell - Reform of Tagalog Orthography - Estimated cost of printing Noli me Tángre

Details
1886
October
21
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Maximo Viola
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Personal medical condition—Viola reports on the cost of printing Noli Me tángere—Inquires about traveling in Germany— He has met Antonio Luna.
(1) [1] It is a familiar Tagalog imprecation, literally meaning, “Lightning struck me.” (2) [2] Noli me tángere. (3) [3] A polite phrase, meaning he is offering his house to Rizal.
Details
1886
October
24
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Evaristo Aguirre
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Financial difficulties in the printing of the Noli—Bitter comments a projected exposition in 1887 -- Machiavellian spirit of domination and exploitation—France and Germany—Translation of William Tell, tales of Anderson, and Faust of Goethe—Ventura witnessed a deplorable incident at the Café Suizo in Manila.
(1) [1] Gaius Cilinus Maecenas (70? -8 B.C.), wealthy Roman statesman and patron of literature, the patron of Horace and Virgil. (2) [2] A play of words Madre Patria (Mother country) (3) [3] A Philippine small sailing craft, like a canoe. In Tagalog, bangka. (4) [4] Pansit is a rich noodle dish. Poto or Puto is steamed sweetened rice-flower. Suman is glutinous rice, soaked in rich coconut milk, wrapped in banana leaves, and boiled until cooked. Bagon or bagoong is a sauce made of salted fish. (5) [5] Moro-moro is the name given to popular plays where there is plenty of action. Their actors represent Christians and Muslims (Moors = Moros), as they are called locally. (6) [6] Or Kastila, Tagalog term for (Castellón =Spaniard).
Details
1886
November
2
Germany
Berlin
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Pastor Ullmer
Rizal informs Pastor Ullmer of his arrival at Berlin – He likes Berlin better than Leipzig.

Details
1886
November
4
Philippines
Berlin
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Visit to the Anthropological and Ethnographic Museum of Dresden - Dr. Meyer was affable towards Rizal.

Details
1886
November
11
Germany
Berlin
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Rizal visiting schools and churches so that he can bring home the best he can find abroad -- Christmas celebration in Europe -- Comparative education of children and its results.

Details
1886
November
14
Germany
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Old books on the Philippines at the Royal Library of Berlin - The works of Morga and Combes - Isabelo de los Reyes.
[1] Doctor Antonio de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, 1609. [2] Fr. Francisco Combes, S.J., Historia de las Islas de Mindanao, Jolo, y sus adyacentes, Madrid, 1667, printed after the author's death at Acapulco, Mexico, on 29 December 1665. W. E. Retana in collaboration with Fr. Pastells published a new edition at Madrid in 1897 with a biography of Fr. Combes.
Details
1886
November
22
Philippines
Binondo
Reformer
Jose M. Cecilio
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
He receives a letter from Rizal written at Leipzig—Congratulates Rizal on his knowledge of German—Considers Rizal lucky for his God-given talents—Wishes him glory—news of mutual friends.
[1] Leonor Rivera.
Details
1886
November
22
Germany
Berlin
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Waitz, Anthropology of Primitive Peoples - Unity of the human race - Translation of Schiller's and Andersen's stories sent to his nephew. - I will make use of the Royal Library for the study of the history of my native country - Chamisso's work and his adventure with a friar = "We are like two blind and deaf men: We converse without seeing or hearing each other." - An exhibition of Igorots at the Zoological Garden in Madrid.
[1] Mute and blind conversation. Rizal corrected this Latin phrase in his next letter to Blumentritt (No. 9). It should read: mutorum caecorumque sermo.
Details
1886
November
23
Germany
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizall
Schiller and Andersen - Malays and Malayan languages - Jagor and Virchow.

Details
1886
November
28
Germany
Berlin
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal's translation of the Ethnography of Mindanao - Rizal's map - Remembrances of the Ateneo - "Those where happy days..." - Rizal will publish a geography textbook - As an explanatory work on the Malayans - Foreigners pay more attention to the study of the Philippines than the Filipinos themselves - Blumentritt's writings in Spanish - Tiruray language - He will translate Waitz - Humboldt's work is admirable - Rizal will visit the scholars Virchow and Jagor - An ethnographic picture.
[1] Waitz-Gerland, Ethnography and Anthropology of Primitive Peoples;André, Ethnographies; Lippert and Helwald, History of Civilization. [2] A slip of the tongue and pen. See note, letter No. 7, ante. [3] F. Blumentritt, Ethnography of the Island of Mindanao. [4] Dialect of the pagan tribe of the Tirurays who inhabit the west coast of Mindanao, south of Cotabato near the River Tran. [5] Waitz, Anthropology of Primitive Peoples and General Ethnography recommended to Rizal by Blumentritt. [6] Perhaps Rizal refers to the work of Baron William von Humboldt, the Languages of the Malayo-Polynesian Family in which the author asserts Tagalog is the richest and most perfect language among them, considering it the prototype of that linguistic family. [7] Sister of Dr. T. H. Pardo de Tavera.
Details
1886
November
29
Philippines
Manila
Family
Silvester Ubaldo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Allowance and money for the Noli -- Don't come home before receiving Paciano's letter

Details
1886
December
3
Germany
Berlin
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Teodora Alonso
Rizal tells his mother about his religious beliefs -- His concept of God - Job was not a patient man contrary to popular belief
(1) The Benedictines are of the monastic order that follow the strict rules of St. Benedict. The Carthusians belong to an austere monastic order founded by St. Bruno in 1086 in the mountainous region near Grenoble, France. (2) Gogo or gugo (Entada scandens, Benth.) is the Tagalog name of the bark of a tropical vine which, pounded and soaked in water, yields a soap like liquid which is used for shampooing. The residue is called ubas and is commonly used for scrubbing the body or kitchen utensils, the floor, and the like.
Details
1886
December
8
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Paciano
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Paciano is against Rizal's immediate return - He advises him to await the verdict on his novel, Noli me Tangere - Rizal's Tagalog translation of William Tell is not very idiomatic -- The new parish priest leads an exemplary life -- Abuses of the civil guard. NOTE: The original letter was badly damaged.
(1) The alcalde mayor of a province exercised both executive and judicial functions. The reforms mentioned separated these junctions, hence the civil governor and the judge for each province. (2) Capitáng totoong na pacabait is a Tagalog phrase that may means "a very accommodating capitan." The Tagalog term mabait, or na pacabait has a broad meaning; it may mean, "kind, good natured, accommodating, generous, etc."
Details
1886
December
9
Germany
Berlin
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal praised for his geography work - Blumentritt's picture in his album - In order to find it among his pleasant memories - The hero's auto-portrait - Rizal with young Moret will pay a call on Professors Jagor and Virchow.
[1] Dr. Máximo Viola. See Reminiscences and Travels of José Rizal, Centennial Edition, Vol. I, Appendix I.
Details
1886
December
24
Germany
Berlin
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Feverish, no sun and wintry wind - Another admirer of Blumentritt - Rizal with Viola and young Moret on Christmas eve - Greetings - Christmas tree - At Manila midnight supper with the family - The Belén with the Child Jesus - The best season in the Philippines - Mr. Schuchardt's work - the other pieces are aegri somnia - Instead of Kopfjaeger, "head-cutters" – Translation of Waitz partly finished.

Details
1886
December
25
Germany
Berlin
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Teodora Alonso
Rizal celebrates Christmas for being the birthday of a great man who first proclaimed the equality of men - Rizal dreams of his mother often - Rizal sees General Moltke walking unattended in the park - How different from petty colonial officials!

Details
1886
December
30
Germany
Berlin
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Sinapism and sudorific against torticollis - Meaning of race, nation, tribe, clan, caste - Viola wants to meet Blumentritt - A gift of a cigar-box - Seeing still strong old men like the emperor, Moltke, and Bismarck, Rizal longed to see his father reach advanced age also.
[1] Dr. Máximo Viola.
Details
1887


Philippines
Manila
Family
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal's family persecuted -- Rizal's father was evicted from his house -- "Our objective is the welfare of the country..." He advises Rizal not to come home.

Details
1887


Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dr. Czepelack - A provision of the Penal Code against Indios and Mestizos.

Details
1887
January
12
Germany
Berlin
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Translation of the Ethnography - Our race is not like that described by Fr. San Agustin, Cañamaque, and others - German and English scholars judge us fairly -We can improve ourselves trough education - Unhappy news - "I'm consoled thinking that there is a God who, sooner or later, will know how to avenge us." - A brutal case in a Manila café - Negligence at the Spanish Legation - The great anthropologist Virchow jesting with our hero - Rizal among professors and scholars in the Ethnographic Society.
2 In the Philippines chabacano is a jargon of Tagalog and Spanish.
Details
1887
January
24
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizall
"Smoking is my passion" - A book by Pardo de Tavera.

Details
1887
January
26
Germany
Berlin
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal admires Dr. Pardo de Tavera for his knowledge of Sanskrit - He would discover more Sanskrit words in Tagalog.¬ Perfect agreement on Philippine independence - Peaceful struggle is a dream -- Spain will never learn the lesson of her former South American colonies - We only ask for greater attention, better education, good government, and representatives - Rizal, member of the Ethnographic Society.
1 India's sacred language which is distinguished from the rest of India's languages" for its greater culture and refined grammatical mechanism. Rizal refers to Pardo de Tavera's treatise, El Sanscrito en la lengua tagalog, 1887, mentioned by Blumentritt in his letter (No. 14,`. 2 Those whom Jupiter wishes to destroy, he first makes mad. 3 Sebastian Vidal y Soler, the Spanish director of forestry, who was appointed director of the Botanical Garden of Manila.
Details
1887
January
31
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Evaristo Aguirre
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Hoping Rizal’s chest ailment is not serious – Condemnation of the projected Philippine exposition – Traditional banquet on 31 December not worthily celebrated – Regrets lack of unity among the Filipinos at Madrid.
[01] Noli me tángere. [02] Victor Balaguer, Catalan poet, who served as minister of colonies. His “pet project” was the holding of a Philippine exposition at Madrid and the establishment of a Philippine Museum.
Details
1887
February
4
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Copies of Globus. POST CARD

Details
1887
February
7
Germany
Berlin
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Busy with clinical research - Deputy La Guardia pleads for a representative for the Philippines at the Congress - Rizal, member of the Anthropological Society and fellow of the Geo¬graphic Society - Blumentritt in poor health.

Details
1887
February
16
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizall
Two works of Montano on the Philippines - A military expedition to Mindanao.
[1] (1864-1938) Filipino historian author of Historia de Ilocos and others. Contemporary of Rizal. [2] In German Jolo is called Sulu, which is more accurate, because in Malay the island is called Solog. (Blumentritt's note.)
Details
1887
February
17
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Evaristo Aguirre
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
He sends Rizal issues of El Liberal in which Quioquiap’s anti-Filipino articles appear – Gracio López Jaena’s reply
[1] Pseudonym of Pablo Leced, a Spanish writer, notorious for his anti-Filipino writings.
Details
1887
February
21
Germany
Berlin
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Two articles by Rizal: A defense of the Philippines and another an attack on her detractor - Spain and not the Filipinos should wish the Hispanization of the country - If Blumentritt could go to the Philippines.
1 Graciano Lopez Jaena (1856-1896), orator and journalist, founder of the fortnightly La Solidaridad. 2 Pablo Feced, Spaniard, author of Filipinas: Esbozos y pinceladas,a collection of satirical articles and diatribes against the Filipinos and things Philippine. 3 Francisco Cañamaque, Spanish writer and politician, contemptuously called the Indios "monkeys." He ;gas the author of Recuerdos de Filipinas, Madrid, 1877-1879, 2 volumes, and Las Islas Filipinos, Madrid, 1880.
Details
1887
March
5
Germany
Berlin
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Unknown
NOTE: In Rizal’s notebook Clinica was found this draft of a letter in French, following a French composition entitled Essai sur Pierre Corneille. It was dated Berlin, 5, March 1887. It has no address. Rizal explains the nature and character of his novel Noli me tángere.
[01] Rizal is mistaken. The verse is taken from John 20:17 where the resurrected Jesus admonishes that Mary Magdalene not touch him until he has ascended. [02] He was writing in Spain: “there” means the Philippines.
Details
1887
March
6
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Paciano
Dear Brother
Another 1,000 pesos for expenses and printing of the book - Until the town fiesta, God and the civil guard willing

Details
1887
March
6
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Graciano López Jaena
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
He deeply appreciates Rizal’s congratulations on his article – Lete, editor of España en Filipinas? -- Criticizes the policy of the new publication – He and Ceferino de León are not on its staff.
[01] The phrase refers to the Filipinos. [2] General Prim, leader of an abortive revolt in 1865 against Queen Isabella II of Spain. [03] Emilio Castelar (1832-1899), distinguished Spanish man of letters, and president for a period of the Spanish Republic (1873-1874). [04] Francisco Pi y Margall (1821-1871), Spanish statesman, one of the presidents of the Spanish Republic (1873-1974), and friend of the Philippines.
Details
1887
March
9
Germany
Berlin
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal in search of a climate favorable to his health - He does not know where to go - In his blood is the Wanderungslust (strong desire for wandering) of the Malayans.
[1] Capital city of Saudi Arabia, holy city of the Muslims, birthplace of Mohammed.
Details
1887
March
10
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Evaristo Aguirre
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Cautious about the novel – Dr. Pardo de Tavera – La Guardia – Quioquiap – A Filipino newspaper in Madrid – España en Filipinas – Its personnel – Graciano’s opposition –Attempt to sow dissidence among the Filipinos in Spain – All should regard themselves Filipinos, regardless of color.
[1] Local name for Jasminum sambae Alt.
Details
1887
March
15
Philippines
Binang
Family
María Mercado
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Maria tells her brother about her marriage and her husband.

Details
1887
March
15
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
What is Catalonan?

Details
1887
March
16
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Graciano López Jaena
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Why they deny us representation in the Cortes – Opposition of the friars – Nothing can be expected from the Spanish government – The mestizas are responsible for lack of union – Criticism of España en Filipinas – We will follow you to glory or to the abyss.
[01] A Tagalog slang term meaning literally “greaser,” one who endeavors favor by attention and flattery.
Details
1887
March
16
Germany
Berlin
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Historico-philological explanation of the word Katalonan - Such a term has never existed in the Tagalog lexicon -An error which has become accepted as truth by dint of writers cop ring one another - Pure Tagalog words have no "o" in the middle - It is used only at the end of the expression and it is "ou" - Spanish pronunciation introduced "o" into Tagalog words.
3 Kakapo, a parrot (Strigops habroptilus) peculiar to New Zealand. 4It refers to the popular work Florante at Laura of the noted Tagalog poet Francisco Baltazar.
Details
1887
March
21
Germany
Berlin
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Nostalgic, Rizal longs to go home - He uses ''k" instead of "c" in Tagalog orthography - He submits his first book to the critical judgment of Blumentritt - On the social and political status of the Philippines - "Here I answer all the false concepts written against us." - "And all the insults against the race." Rizal was assaulted one night for not having saluted an officer of the civil guard.
4 Dr. Maximo Viola.
Details
1887
March
27
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Mariano Herbosa
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Good family news - Asks Rizal to be his son's baptismal sponsor.

Details
1887
March
27
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Lucía Mercado
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Announces the birth of her seventh child - Asks Rizal for rule, for child-care.

Details
1887
March
27
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Acknowledges receipt of Rizal's book.
[1] Noli me tangere, Berlin, 1887, first edition
Details
1887
March
27
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
He congratulates him on his novel - The word filibustero - A prophecy of Blumentritt about Rizal - About the word Bathalà.
[1] Title of the novel. [2] A member of one of various tribes of mixed aboriginal peoples inhabiting the Celebes and the Moluccas.
Details
1887
March
29
Germany
Berlin
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Optimism and hope - Better concept of myself - Blumentritt's opinion on the merits of the Noli - Encouragement from Reiss and Hidalgo - "Pages full of truth and love of country." - Riedel's Tagalog - Meaning of filibustero, pirata, and sospechoso - Philological explanation of Bathalá - A derivation of the Sanskrit Bhattara like the Hari = king- Did Bathalá disappear because of Christianity
1 Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo, the celebrated Filipino painter. 2 A German-Dutch linguist who, together with Niemann, a Dutchman, collected original fables in 23 Malayan dialects of the Dutch Indies and in Tagalog and Jolo dialect. 3 The Filipino priests Jose A. Burgos, Mariano Gomez and Jacinto Zamora were garroted on 17 February 1872 for supposed complicity in the Cavite Mutiny of that year. 4 Some odd drawings follow in the original letter 5 President of the Anthropological Society of Berlin
Details
1887
March
31
Philippines
Manila
Family
Olimpia Rizal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Family news
(1) Older people, on account of their lack of teeth, pound the betel nut before chewing it.
Details
1887
April
1
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Evaristo Aguirre
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
He regrets López Jaena’s hurry in informing Rizal of dissension among the Filipinos – López Jaena resents he was not chosen editor of the publication España en Filipinas – He is glad Rizal is pleased with the review.

Details
1887
April
13
Germany
Berlin
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
In order to know more about our history one has to go to German museums and read German books - Rizal in favor of Philippine studies - Nosce te ipsum - How many obstacles to the Penal Code! - To clear the forest of its brambles and briers - Youth should not be devoted to love or to static sciences - To sacrifice something on the altar of Politics - How Barrantes goes too far - Freed prisoners - Blumentritt should write our history.
(1) It is the ethnographic map of the central region of Mindanao by Blumentritt, published by the Gotha Cartographic Institute. Serecal of its unnamed rivers were designated by Blumentritt with the names of General San Feliú and some Jesuits among whom was Fr. Sánchez. (2)Dr. Máximo Viola. (3) Know thyself. (4) He obtained the Licentiate in Philnsophy and Letters in 1885 which qualified him to be a universitv professor. (5) It refers tn Switzerland. "We have conquered this land with the diligence of our hand. the old forest, which formerly was the abode of wild bears, we have changed into the habitation of men; we have killed the spawn of the dragon." (6) Chapter LIX in Noli me tángere, Berlin, 1887. (7) In Noli me tángere. (8) Duke of Alba ( 1508-1582) who suppressed cruelly the revolt in the Netherlands.
Details
1887
April
24
Germany
Berlin
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
The return home - "To leave Berlin when now it pleases me most. . . ." - Rizal's father is anxious to see him -Sorry to leave Europe - "I'll be more useful in my country. . . ." - Bids Blumentritt farewell - "To admire Berlin in spring. . .." -"If I could receive periodicals I would not feel there as if banished from my scientific mother country." - The catechisms of Weber - "In Manila only pleasant things are read, utile dulcissimo!
1 General Ethnography by Waitz-Gerland. 2 Dr. Maximo Viola.
Details
1887
May

Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Enrique Rogers
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rogers, of Spanish parentage, is impressed by the Noli – The few who have read it are enthusiastic.

Details
1887
May
3
Europe

Reformer
Antonio Regidor
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Regidor [01] comments on the Noli – Who does not know “Fr. Damaso”? – Comments on “Capitan Tiago, Old Tasio, Fr. Salvi, the ‘good chap’ Don Primitivo, the ‘learned’ Fr. Sibyla and Maria Clara” – Critic of the first order – What the Filipinos lack are union, energy, decision and constancy.
[01] Antonio Ma. Regidor y Jurado (1845 - 28 December 1910) was born in Manila. A lawyer he obtained the degree of Doctor of Civil Law from the University of Santo Tomás. Arrested as a result of the Cavite Mutiny of 1872 he was banished together with several other Filipino patriots. Eventually he established his residence at London where he practiced law. He favored establishing close commercial relations between the two countries. A republican in political sympathies, he contributed articles to Manila and Madrid newspapers. He opposed American occupation of the Philippines, but afterwards he favored commercial relations between the United States and the Philippines. His views on the question are expounded in his work entitled Commercial Progress in the Philippine Islands (1905). Returning to Manila in 1907 he founded a bilingual newspaper – La Asamblea Filipina-Kapulungang Bayan. After the inauguration of the Philippine Assembly he went back to Europe and he died at Nice, France, on 28 December 1910. A street in Manila is named in his memory. [02] Vicente Barrantes, a Spaniard who led high positions in the Philippine Government and member of the Reales Academias de la Lenga y de la Historia, wrote “with the greatest audacity” on diverse Philippine subjects as the Tagalog theater, linguistics, education, and others. In Spain he was considered a scholar but in the Philippines his name will forever be extracted on account of his bad intentions and hostility toward Filipinos. [03] “Muero sin ver la aurora brillar sobre mi patria. . . .! vostros, quie la habeis de ver, saludadla. . . . no os olvideis de los que han caido durante la noche!” (I die without seeing the dawn shine over my native land. . . .! you who will see it salute it. . . . do not forget those who fell during the night!) – uttered by the dying Elías in Rizal’s Noli me tángere (Berlin, 1887, p. 349). [04] Snob, screwball. [05] In the original Spanish, Misionero Filipino, for at that time “Filipino” was applied to Spaniards in the Philippines and “Indio” to the natives, unlike now (written 1961) when “Indio” is no longer used and “Filipino” means a native of the Philippines. [06] “Distingo” is often used in scholastic argumentation. [07] Literal translation: “……… none could I find/ More fair than Philippine beauties/ Girls on whose sighing lips are melodies/ What to others are words.” [08] A sodality, or a devotional and charitable lay association in the Roman Catholic Church. [09] Without love, without a country. Only tears and woes I see before me.
Details
1887
May
4
Germany
Berlin
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Visits Blumentritt at Leitmeritz - Will stop at the Hotel Krebs Postscript - Swoboda and the young Casal.
1 He was traveling with Dr. Maximo Viola. 2 Until we meet again! Au revoir!
Details
1887
May
10
Germany
Berlin
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Pastor Ullmer
Rizal tells his kind German friend, Pastor Ullmer, of his travel itinerary – He sends him his picture.
[01] In the German style, meaning Mrs. Ullmer. The original letter was written in German. [02] Dr. Máximo Viola.
Details
1887
May
15
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Evaristo Aguirre
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
A post card written in Chabacano, the pidgin Spanish used in some parts of the Philippines
[01] A pet name for José. [02] Eduardo de Lete. [03] A Tagalog imprecation literally meaning “lightning”. [04] Rizal wrote an essay on the “Feast of San Isidro” describing its celebration by the Madrilenians. An English version is published in volume III of the Centennial Edition of Rizal’s works.
Details
1887
May
19
Austria
Brunn
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Willkomm's daughters - Rizal's talent praised in a Prague newspaper - "What have I done to deserve the sympathy of such kind souls - Rizal has wept so much for the Mother Country - Magnificent farewell of Europe followed omen of sad days to come? - Happiness is always followed by misfortune - In defense of slandered fellow countrymen - Reward for the cause of truth.
1 Or Brno, principal city of Moravia, Czechoslovakia. 2 This sentence is incomplete in the MS.
Details
1887
May
20
Austria
Vienna
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Arrival at Vienna - Recommended calls. POST CARD

Details
1887
May
23
Philippines
Binondo
Reformer
Jose M. Cecilio
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s Noli me tángere received with enthusiasm – Highly praised – Comparable to Cervantes’ Don Quijote de la Mancha – Tomás del Rosario is ready to defend it, if it is attacked – He suggests a way of introducing it into the Philippines – Manue l Rodriguez Arias, owner of Agencial Editorial at Manila, would be a good distributor – Encourages Rizal to continue writing – Asks Rizal to explain the use of the “K” in Tagalog.
[01] An official of the rank of second lieutenant.
Details
1887
May
24
Austria
Vienna
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
At the Vienna Museum - Nordmann resembles Rizal's father - Poor sick Dora of the little blue eyes! - Die Tinguianen - It is an honor to win recognition - Interview, with the Extra Blatt reporter.

Details
1887
May
26
Austria
Salzburg
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
He didn't see Blumentritt's friend. POST CARD
[1] Noli me tangere, Berlin, 1887, first edition.
Details
1887
May
29
Germany
Munich
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
A little book for the Philippines - Rizal will have his picture taken in Geneva.

Details
1887
May
29
Germany
Munich
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Friedrich Ulmer
Rizal replies to the letter of the son of Pastor Ullmer – He has fond memories of Wilhelmsfeld and the Ulmer hospitality.

Details
1887
May
31
Germany
Stuttgart
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Looking for the professor who is preparing a dictionary.

Details
1887
June
3
Switzerland
Basel
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
He will write Willkomm and Nordmann - Through rose-colored glasses.
[1] Or, Basle (Bâle), Switzerland. [2] Prof. Willkomm, the Privy Councilor and Mr. Nordmann of the Vienna museum.
Details
1887
June
3
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Evaristo Aguirre
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Aguirre has sold four copies of Noli me tángere – Application filed at the Ministry of Formento at Madrid for a permit to import the Noli – Critical appreciation of the Noli – The review of Cauit’s articles in España en Filipinas.
[01] A Tagalog term meaning “nobleman.” [02] Julio Llorente would become a lawyer and hold high government posts in the Philippine government. [03] The sum staked at a card game. [04] España en Filipinas. [05] A beautiful park in Madrid. [06] Or Kamagong, a Philippine hardwood color. The term as here used applies to the Filipinos.
Details
1887
June
3
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Evaristo Aguirre
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Aguirre addresses Rizal with is pseudonym in a post card and signs it “Cauit”, the name of his natal town in Cauit Province.
[01] Literary meaning: “cheap public eating place.” He refers to his card written in Chabacano (Letter No. 36, ante.)
Details
1887
June
6
Switzerland
Geneva
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Thinking of Germany -His journey to "Europe, land of liberty`' is about to end -'To see the ancient city of the Caesar's Will bid Europe goodbye from Marseille - Marseille is pureprosa after his beautiful dreams of Madrid, Paris, and Germany - "Even if I meet my ruin there, I have to return!" -- The Igorots are already in Madrid -- An insult to human dignity to exhibit them together with animals.. , .
1 Civium, Latin noun, genitive plural of civis, means "of the citizens” 2 "It is sweet to die remembering Argo." A band of heroes who sailed with Jason in the ship Argo to Colchis in search of the Golden Fleece. 3 A kind of rustic hut or cabin made of tree branches, bamboo, and grass.
Details
1887
June
10
Switzerland
Geneva
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal will visit "Italy, mother country of European laws." -Adieu to Dora - Blumentritt's interesting pamphlet on Philippine things. - "Upon leaving, Europe seems to me more precious." - Another political and social atmosphere in the Philippines.

Details
1887
June
13
Switzerland
Geneva
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
A picture for Blumentritt and another for Eberhard Eysert who entertained him in Vienna - As a remembrance.

Details
1887
June
13
Switzerland
Geneva
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Fernando Canon
Rizal lauds Canon’s literary ability – Concerning the sale of Noli me tángere.
[01] Fernando Canon was Rizal’s classmate at the Ateneo Municipal, Manila. He graduated in Spain as an electrical engineer. He became a notable guitar player and a general in the Philippine Revolutionary Army.
Details
1887
June
14
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Evaristo Aguirre
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
He is glad Rizal and Viola approve of his article – Separation of Govantes from the revised España en Filipinas – New subscribers – among them the Chinese Legation – López Jaena now collaborates – Filipinos on the Board of directors of the Sociedad de Geografía Comercial – His criticism of Noli me tángere – He encourages Rizal to write more books – Maginoo, title of nobility belongs to the Paterno family.
[01] Tabo is an empty coconut shell used for conveying water. [02] “Maguinoo” refers to Pedro A Paterno.
Details
1887
June
14
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
An excursion to the mountains. POST CARD

Details
1887
June
19
Switzerland
Geneva
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
It is not propitious to engage in premature conspiracies¬. When there is no other remedy but seek for our ruin in war - The olive branch or tile holocaust - There is nothing imperishable -- it is impossible to endure everything - " The happiness of my country it the evil is only in the system of government. Will oppose everything that may be planned against Spain. I trust in God -With enchanted spectacles.
1 The most amiable Mr. Blumentritt.
Details
1887
June
20
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Eduardo Lete
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Advantages of having Lete in the Exposition – The magazine España en Filipinas has no money – Lete explains announcement of Noli me tángere – His comments on the Noli.
[01] Exposicíon General de las Islas Filipinas held at Madrid in 1887. [02] A term the colonial Spaniards applied to a Filipino who was critical of the colonial government and in favor of better government or political and social reforms. [03] Pablo Ortiga y Rey, a Spaniard who held the post of counselor of the Philippines in Spain. The Filipinos at Madrid frequented his house. [04] The “colonial” Filipinos residing in Spain. [05] España en Filipinas. [06] “Tabacalera” is the popular name of the Spanish tobacco company, Compaña General de Tabacos de Filipinas. [07] Pedro A. Paterno (1857-1911), Filipino writer and politician, who belonged to a wealthy Manila family. [08] Rizal’s Noli me tángere that came out in 1887. [09] Julio Llorente. [10] “Nosotros desearamos que la terrible imagen sacudiese una vez su sagrada cabellera a los ojos de estras personas devotas, y les puesiese el pie sobre la langua o la cabeza.” (We would like the terrible image [of the Virgin] to shake once her sacred tresses in the presence of these devout persons and put her foot on their tongue or head.)
Details
1887
June
21
Philippines
Binondo
Reformer
Jose M. Cecilio
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Advises Rizal to stay abroad until better times – His brother regrets having asked him to come home – Send thousands of copies of Noli to the Philippines – Continue writing, but abroad – His friends will do all they can to spread his ideas.

Details
1887
June
27
Italy
Rome
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Before the ruins of the Rome of the Caesars - My feet tread on the dust of heroes.-- The Capitol, the Tarpeian Rock, the Palatinum. Forum. Amphitheatre, before the eyes of the archaeologist -- At the Capitoline Museum and the church of St. Mary Major - A flower from the garden of the palace of Septimius Severus for Blumentritt as a remembrance,
1 Fortified imperial residence built on top of the Capitoline hill 2 High rocky peak of a hill in Rome from which condemned traitors were hurled, as was Tarpeia. 3 Ancient palace of the Roman emperors. 4 Public place for the transaction of judicial and public business. 5 An oval building with rising tiers of seats for the holding of spectacles, like gladiatorial combats. 6 A building used for the study of Roman Science, letters, and arts where very ancient objects are stored – paintings, medals, machinery, weapons. 7 Roman Emperor, son of Tarquin the Proud, who also became emperor.
Details
1887
June
29
Italy
Rome
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Francisco Rizal Mercado
Rizal annouces his return to his father

Details
1887
July
2
France
Marseille
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
On Tagalog art of versification - Blumentritt understands Rizal - The Germans believe they have a "transparent chest" - Something German? -- A fine type of Jesuit - Merit; virtues, are the foundation of friendship - Rizal in good luck - Of magnetic attraction -- Whoever deals with him becomes his friend - Consoled by Blumentritt.

Details
1887
July
7
On board the Djemnah
Mediteranean Sea
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Far from Europe - Adieu "beautiful country of liberty" - Field glasses lost- "pecuniary loss can relegate to oblivion a sentimental pain" - Advantages of a polyglot.

Details
1887
July
7
On board the Djennah ship

Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Fernando Canon
Passengers represent different nationalities – German, French, English, Japanese, Chinese – Rizal alone can speak with them in their native tongues – The French are interested only in the exploitation of their colonies.

Details
1887
July
14

Colombo
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
POSTAL CARD

Details
1887
July
20
On board the Djemnah
On way to Manila
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Tossed by tempestuous waves-1 always dream that I remained in Europe...." - Rizal wins the sympathy of his fellow passengers as interpreter - A German lover of the glories of his Native Country - The Germans are a great nation but they are not first in every respect - Dora and the children in the colonies.

Details
1887
July
25
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizall
Blumentritt is very sad for not having received news of Rizal's safe arrival home and for the death of two friends, Nordmann and Labhart - Painter Eysert is making a portrait of Blumentritt for Rizal.
Nordman died on August 20, 1887 so date of letter must be 25 September (L. Spittael)
Details
1887
July
26

Strait of Malacca, Ojemwale
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Fine trip - En route to the Philippines POST CARD

Details
1887
July
29
On board the ship Djennah

Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Fernando Canon
In a post card Rizal writes Canon about his trip
[01] Noli me tángere multiplied to infinity. (Ponce’s note)
Details
1887
July
30
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Pablo Ortiga y Rey
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Infamous revenge to deny Rizal’s brother-in-law burial in holy ground – Becerra has proposed abolition of Council of Overseas Colonies – To progress the Philippines needs justice and good government – Blumentritt’s defense of the Noli me tángere seems good.

Details
1887
August
8
Philippines
Manila
Others
Vicente Jocson
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Welcome home! – Offers his house on Legazpi Street, Intramuros.

Details
1887
August
9
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Felix Ma. Roxas
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Eagerness to welcome Rizal home – Cannot find a copy of Noli me tángere – Recalls the impression made on them by European culture – Life in Manila is monotonous.
(01) Felix Ma. Roxas (1868-1936), a graduate of Ateneo de Manila, went to Madrid in 1881 to study at the Escuela de Ingenieros y Caminos but returned to Manila without finishing the course; studied law at the University of Santo Thomas, graduating in 1894. He served as mayor of Manila from 1905-1917.
Details
1887
August
24
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizall
The death of John Nordmann.

Details
1887
August
27
Philippines
Kalamba
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Addressed to Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt the original draft of this unfinished letter in German is in the possession of Miss Consuelo Lopez Rizal, a niece of the hero - He gives an ac¬count of his arrival in 1887, his first return to his native coun¬try -- Already lie was a famous man -- Author of Noli me tan¬gere - Physician -- Ophthalmologist - Recognized leader of his countrymen - With many admirers as well as enemies.

Details
1887
September
4
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The translation of the Noli into German. POST CARD

Details
1887
September
4
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
A photo of Blumentritt for Rizal. POST CARD
1 A French term literally meaning "revenge". Here it simply means "exchange gift". See letter No. 86.
Details
1887
September
5
Philippines
Calamba
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Happy passage - Grand reception at home - Tears of joy, ten thousand questions all at once and laughter - Oh, my beauti¬ful Motherland! - The Noli raised a great deal of uproar . . . - The General said: "Your novel roused comments; it con¬tains subversive ideas; I wish to read it. . . ." -"If you don't receive a letter from me, something must have happened to me." - "Returning perhaps to my adopted country."

Details
1887
September
6
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
J. Peilifen
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Blumentritt is translating into German Rizal’s Noli – Inquires about the meaning of sinigang mentioned in the novel – Blumentritt cultivates Balaguer’s friendship for the sake of Rizal – La Publicidad publishes a review of the Noli – Mariano Ponce will also publish one.
(01) This is probably a pseudonym for Dr. Máximo Viola. He corresponded with Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt and traveled with Rizal in Germany and Australia in 1886. Here he mentions that he is not going back to Madrid to get his doctorate. See the earlier letter of Máximo Viola No. 25 in which he tells Rizal he has matriculated for the doctorate.
Details
1887
September
23
Philippines
Manila
Family
Concha
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Sorrow for the death of Olimpia -- Choleng (Soledad) is ill.
(1) Galicano Apecible, Rizal relative. NOTE: Concepción Leyba, daughter of Basilia Bauson, Rizal's Lola Ilang, was an aunt of Rizal. Her brother, Colonel José Leyba of the Revolutionary Army was assassinated by members of a society called "Santa Iglesia" in Northern Luzon in 1901.
Details
1887
September
26
Philippines
Calamba
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Cigarettes and flowers - The sulpakan (lighter) invented by Rizal - Its mechanism - Death of his sister Olimpia due to childbirth - The little orphans - The Pasiam -- Cold coins of ancient Filipinos buried in a clay jar.
Did Blumentritt recieve a gold coin from JPR?1 See drawing in the facsimile. 2 Olimpia Rizal, wife of Silvestre Ubaldo. 3 Nine days of prayer for the soul of a deceased person. Relatives and friends join the family in these prayers. Afterwards, a refreshment is served them.
Details
1887
September
26
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Soledad
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Regrets Olimpia's death

Details
1887
September
26
Philippines
Manila
Others
Jose M. Cecilio
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
José M. Cecilio sends his condolences on the death of Olimpia, Rizal’s sister.

Details
1887
October
18
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Joy on receiving a letter of Rizal - Rizal asks for children’s, stories - Rizal is regarded with suspicion in his own Country - A letter of Minister Balaguer.

Details
1887
October
18
Philippines
Manila
Family
Soledad
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Concerning a book and a diploma -- Soledad asks for her mourning clothes.

Details
1887
October
19
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Julio Llorente
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Llorente leaves the publication España en Filipinas – The Filipinos at Madrid have not done anything to secure a permit for the importation into the Philippines of Rizal’s Noli me tángere—Lete has not published a review of it.

Details
1887
October
19
Philippines
Calamba
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Contented with Blumentritt's letters - A gymnasium hall in Kalamba - To diminish the people in the cockpit and panguingee - German translation of Noli by Blumentritt - Did not visit Pardo who holds government commissions - In order not to soil his white gloves "with his hands stained for writing novels." - A German chauvinist is better than a man devoid of patriotism - Educated compatriots devoid of honor and shame.
1 Rizal refers to Luna as a Tagalog artist. Strictly speaking, he was an Ilocano, but in Rizal's time often Tagalog and Filipino were used interchangeably. The aforesaid illustrations were lost during the Japanese Occupation (1942-1945). 2 Isabelo de los Reyes (1864-1938). 3 A pencil sketch of a sailboat on Laguna Lake by Rizal. 4 According to Friedrich Blumentritt, son of Ferdinand Blumentritt, the sketch or statuette is not mentioned in his father's will. 5 Until we meet again!
Details
1887
October
29
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
He asks for a Tagalog grammar and dictionary.

Details
1887
November
14
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
POST CARD

Details
1887
November
15
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The consolation of religion - The sulpakan and the flowers sent by Rizal - A clay jar - "Thank God Rizal is alive!" - A painting by Luna for Blumentritt.
1 He was Andres Luna San Pedro (1887-1952) who was a famous architect.
Details
1887
November
16
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
A gift for Rizal's nephews. POST CARD

Details
1887
November
27
Philippines
Bacolod Pampanga
Reformer
Balbino Ventura
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s parents would not allow Rizal to go to Pampanga – Reiterates his invitation to Rizal – Would like to read Noli me tángere
(01) A horse-drawn carriage.
Details
1887
December
3
Philippines
Calamba
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal is busy with surgical operations - He has earned more than P900 - Will return to Europe - "Everybody wants me to leave the Philippines." - The Government wants him as far away as possible - `The Filipinos fear for me and for the selves." --- Kind words of Blumentritt in the Geographic Commercial Review.

Details
1887
December
13
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Pedro Serrano Laktaw
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The customs would not release the box of copies of Noli me tángere – A copy of the regulations for primary instruction.
[01] Laktaw was a Tagalog lexicographer and primary school teacher who graduated from the normal school, and later studied in Spain obtaining a diploma of teacher of secondary school youth.
Details
1888


Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Pedro Serrano Laktaw
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Serrano has a school in Binondo – Incidents in the hearing on the petition for the expulsion of the friars – News about various friends – Viado is imprisoned on account of the Noli.
01 Name of one of the districts of Manila. 02 Laureano Viado.
Details
1888
February
9
China
Hong Kong
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Pedro A. Paterno
Rizal, en route to Europe, sends Pedro A. Paterno a post card in Chabacano.

Details
1888
February
15
Philippines
Manila
Others
A Friar
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
An anonymous letter, signed “A Friar”. He calls Rizal ungrateful – The letter expresses the well-known attitude of the friars toward educated Filipinos. Unfortunately the original manuscript is damaged.

Details
1888
February
16
China
Hobg Kong
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Left the native land sick - Freed from the tyrannical censor - Rizal's odyssey - In danger of being locked up in a dungeon - Persecuted by the friars - Denunciation of secret meetings on top of a hill - "I exile myself to save friends from deportation."
1 The lieutenant of the civil guard, Jose Taviel de Andrade, assigned to watch Rizal's movements in Manila and Calamba. 2 Emilio Terrero y Perinat, governor general from 4 April 1885-¬4 June 1888, 3 From the dedication, "Kay Selya", of the poem in Tagalog entitled Florante at Laura by Francisco Baltazar or Balagtas. The complete stanza (12) is as follows: Parang naririnig ang lagi mong wika: Tatlong araw na di nagtatanaw tama At isinasagot ko ng sabing may tuwa: Sa isa katawo'y marami ang handa Free translation: I seem to hear you always telling me: "For three days we haven't seen each other;" To which gaily I would reply: "Many vicissitudes every man encounters."
Details
1888
March
1
Japan
Tokyo
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
Spanish charge d'affaires invites Rizal to his hotel room -- Yokohama and Manila compared -- Japanese men and women -- Impression of Tokyo

Details
1888
March
4
Japan
Tokyo
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal, wonder of the Japanese - Like a Europeanized Jap¬anese - Japanese women adopt European attire - Industry and integrity - few thieves and beggars - how disgusting to see a man drawing a jinrikissha like a horse!
1 A literal translation of the Spanish saying, No saludo con sobrero ajeno, which means, "I don't bask in reflected glory."
Details
1888
April
7
Japan
Tokyo
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
My dear Parents and Brothers
Travelling to America - learning Japanese - trees are blossoming
A fragment of Rizal's letter
Details
1888
April
29
U S A
San Francisco
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
My dear Parents
gifts of 10 combs to his sisters - two doors for Paciano
On board S.S. Belgic
Details
1888
April
30
U S A
San Francisco
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal wishes to correspond with Ponce – Orders the works of Larra to improve his command of the Spanish language with the proceeds from the sale of his Noli – He is en route to London.
(01) Dr. Máximo Viola. (02) Mariano José de Larra (1809-1837), who had the pseudonym, “Figaro,” was a Spanish prose writer and trenchant critic. At 28 years of age he committed suicide. (03) See letter No. 39.
Details
1888
April
30
U S A
San Francisco
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
In California under quarantine - Folklorists and anthropologists appear in Ilocos.
(1) Pseudonym of Mr. Isabelo de los Reyes (1864-1938).
Details
1888
May
24


Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
Description of the City of Rome -- Many languages are spoken aboard
(1) The vara was an old unit of linear measure in Spain and Spanish America. It varied from about 31 to 33 inches in length.
Details
1888
May
30
France
Paris
Reformer
Juan Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
It is unfortunate to live in exile, writes Painter Luna to Rizal – Japanese painting is as advanced as that of Greece and Italy, he says in admiration.
(01) Juan Luna’s wife was Paz Pardo de Tavera, sister of Dr. T. H. Pardo de Tavera. His son, Andrés Luna San Pedro, was a noted architect. He died in the Philippines on the 23rd of January 1952.
Details
1888
June

U K
London
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Paciano
At London again -- Engaged in his studies -- Awaiting letters from his family -- Remembers his relatives
(1) A respectful form of address for an older female relative. (2) A respectful form of address for an older male relative.
Details
1888
June
2
U K
London
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Address you familiarly, no because you are respectable-¬Filipinos are very courteous to their parents, --- The friars addressed us familiarly considering us their inferiors. Rizal complimented with a tea party by Dr. Rost. --- They discussed languages -- Filipiniana library of Rost.
1 Dr. Reinhold Rost, bibliographer, librarian of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, London. 2 Mr. Pedro A. Paterno (1857-1911), noted writer and politician, contemporary of Rizal, who belonged to a wealthy Manila family.
Details
1888
June
5
U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal requests Ponce to send him the complete works of Larra.
(01) Rizal reads the best Spanish writers to improve his command of the language.
Details
1888
June
8
U K
London
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Pastor Ullmer
Rizal tells of his return to Europe – Noli me tángere in the Philippines – The friars want his expulsion from the Philippines – But he will go back.

Details
1888
June
12
U K
London
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
He didn't find letters from home upon arrival -- His trip from Liverpool to London -- He boards with an English family -- Sunday at London is boring

Details
1888
June
13
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Ponce sends Rizal a compilation of Larra’s articles and addresses of several friends.

Details
1888
June
16
U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Larra, the best Spanish prose writer of the century – All the works of great men are worthy of study – Rizal prefers the complete, not selected, works of Larra – In Madrid, where Rizal had many friends, his work could not even get in – Condemnation of his work at Manila – Need for unity among the Filipinos.
(01) The “younger brother” was El Filibusterismo; from the sale of Noli me tángere Rizal hoped to defray the cost of the printing of his second novel but he would be disappointed. (02) Rizal writes of Galicano Apacible who became a physician and figured prominently in Philippine politics in the early part of the 20th century.
Details
1888
June
22
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
In Barcelona the Filipinos are willing to sacrifice themselves for the sake of their country – Enthusiasm for the work of Rizal – “Those who criticize acts of heroism and self-denial deserve eternal condemnation in the history of the motherland” – Awaiting the second novel of Rizal.

Details
1888
June
23
U K
London
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Paciano Rizal is Philosopher Tasio - The only man, according to the lieutenant of the civil guard - General Salamanca asks for the punishment of Filipino reformists - The Spanish Senate is indifferent - "We pay taxes, we shed our blood for Spain, and when we raise a petition, punishment is our reward!" - The simile of the old cocotte - "Fight for truth : Raise us or knock us down!" - Fame for the defense of the weak - The Filipinos have lost faith in Spain - The second edition of the Noli, not very different from the first.
(1) A character in Rizal's Noli me tangere
Details
1888
June
26
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Evaristo Aguirre
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s impressions are not surprising after his visit to his country – Only time and the efforts of those called to regenerate her can overthrow the secular power, transforming little by little her way of life – First the ideological ground should be won for cultivation – Our country is where our affection lies – The whip and the muzzle will increase the ranks of the awakened ones.
(01) General José de Salamanca, senator, denounced the Noli me tángere and its author on the floor of the Spanish senate in June 1888. Senator Fernando Vida supported him. Senator Luis Ma. Paredes also called attention to the Rizal novel at another session of the senate (April 12, 1889).
Details
1888
June
27
U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
No one would take the slightest step to enable Rizal’s works to enter Madrid – Send to Manila copies of the Noli, even if they are not paid for – Some German doctors felicitate him – Literature is a secondary matter; the principal thing is to think and feel rightly – One ought to work always with the head and the heart and with the arms when the time comes – What I want is to eclipsed by a pleiad of fellow at the time of my death.
01 Rizal refers to the selected essays of Larra. See the preceding letter, No. 46. 02 Juan Luna, Painter, (1857-1899). 03 Felix Resurreción Hidalgo (1855-1913).
Details
1888
June
28
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
What kind of publication is Correo de Espania? ¬"Quioquiap" falls out of his customary rule. POST CARD

Details
1888
July
1
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Recommending some books. POST CARD

Details
1888
July
4
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The Philippines in a crisis – A communication of Acting Governor General Moltó concerning the prestige of the religious orders – Fr. Salvador Font’s censure of the Noli – Grand reception of Rizal’s book in Germany, according to Blumentritt who is translating it into German.

Details
1888
July
5
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
A cerebral congestion – Blumentritt’s Memoir in German.

Details
1888
July
5
France
Paris
Reformer
Juan Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Photographs of Luna’s paintings – He may go to London to sell some of his paintings – When is Rizal going to write the second part of his beautiful satire? (Noli me tángere)

Details
1888
July
9
U K
London
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal refutes the falsehoods of Senator Vida uttered in the Senate - The friars spread false reports - Senator Vida has lied like a phonograph - The Noli is not anti-Catholic or socialistic or Proudhonian - "We are filibusteros when we raise our voice" - "He who sows wind gathers tempests."

Details
1888
July
13
France
Paris
Reformer
Valentin Ventura
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
General Moltós temporary administration was fatal to the Philippines – Rizal’s trip had not been useless – Effect of Rizal’s visit to some families in Manila.
(01) Valeriano Weyler, the Governor General (1888-1891)
Details
1888
July
21
U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
The Mother Country ought to be satisfied because she has sons who love her – Who is Plaridel? – Fr. Font’s
(01) Publicidad was a periodical published by Prof. Miguel Morayta at Barcelona, which was pro-Filipino. (02) Pseudonym of Marcelo H. del Pilar (1850-1896), Filipino lawyer, writer, and reformer.
Details
1888
July
26
U K
London
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal wrote Senator Vida refuting his errors - Cortes has recessed - The speech against Filipino aspirations did not arouse much interest - If Senator Vida resumes his attack, I will refute his falsehoods in the press - Misbehavior of the friars according to letters from Manila.

Details
1888
July
27
U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal receives Larra’s work – Relates his hurried departure from the Philippines – Amusing incident on the boat – Impressions of America – Lauds Plaridel’s patriotic labors.

Details
1888
August
2
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Sends Rizal copy of Fr. Font’s review of Noli – Reports of insurrection plotted by the friars – Resignation of liberal-minded governor general Emilio Terrero – Filipino colony at Barcelona eagerly awaits Rizal – M. H. del Pilar (Plaridel) is still in the Philippines.
01 Emilio Terrero y Perinat, Governor General, (1885-1888), was liberal minded and liked by the Filipino reformers 02 Antonio Moltó, Vice Governor (Segundo Cabo), became acting governor for a very short time. He resigned on account of ill health, and Federico Lobatón took his place until Valeriano Weyler arrived.
Details
1888
August
7
U K
London
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Spaniards judge us unjustly - What would they say if they are judged according to the behavior of the bullfighters and criminals of Madrid? - They like paradoxes and beautiful phrases without considering their veracity - "The Indio is happy so long as he is not remembered." - The author of such nonsense is the king of fools -- Withdraw from the fight! - When politics blazes between tyrants and oppressed peoples, it has no heart but fangs and poison . . . ." Consequence: "The Indios formerly lived happily so long as the Spaniards did not mind them."

Details
1888
August
10
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
"As the stag clamors for water so I cry for you." - Noli must be very much persecuted in the Philippines.
1 Victor Balaguer, Catalan poet and Liberal minister of colonies and statesman. 2 Tusculum, an ancient Latin city in Rome, celebrated for Cecero's villa near by, which gave the title for his philosophical work, Tusculan Disputations. 3 Nom de plume of Wenceslao L. Retana.
Details
1888
August
13
U K
London
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Chief Librarian, British Museum
[01] || To the Chief Librarian, British Museum British Museum and to copy sculpture.
[01] This is the date stamped on the letter at the British Museum. The letter is in English.
Details
1888
August
16
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s friends are alarmed by his silence – The Spanish government awards the Grand Cross of Isabela the Catholic to Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt

Details
1888
August
18
U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
A novelist is responsible only for the words that he says are his—The Country is beginning to show her hatred of the friars and civil guards – Send copies of Noli to Manila – The new Tagalog orthography.
01 That is, ridiculous, absurd 02 A Barcelona periodical that publishes a column of news from the Philippines. 03 To the greater glory of the Philippines. 04 A Manila businessman.
Details
1888
August
18
U K
London
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Weber, impartial in matters of religion, unlike Voltaire, Cantu, and Renan - The patriot Dr. Antonio Regidor offers to finance the printing of Sucesos de /as Islas Filipinas by Morga, annotated by Rizal.
1Don't touch me. From the Gospel of St. John, 20:17 2 The patriot Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor V Jurado (1845-1910) who, after his exile to Mariana Islands on account of the events of 1872, went to live in London. See "Dr. Jurado", p. 173
Details
1888
August
25
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
More on Fr. Font’s criticism Ponce’s family follows the new Tagalog orthography—It asks for a picture of Rizal – Filipinos at Barcelona send regards to Rizal.
01 Literally, he was playing the bass-viol, meaning talking absentmindedly. 02 A Filipino medical student from Balayan Batangas and a relative of Rizal.
Details
1888
August
26
U K
London
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal will annotate Morga's History - What of the ethnographic map of Mindanao -The book The Chinese Portrayed by Themselves by Tseng-Ki-Tong - The Noli in Spanish " in order to awaken the spirit of my native land from its slumber.

Details
1888
September
4
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
House of Laureano Viado searched - Confiscation of copies of Noli me tangere - They forbade Dr. Pardo-de Tavera to treat patients?
1 This is in English
Details
1888
September
9
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
An impostor's letter to Blumentritt - "Could it be a bait?" - "The attack against you proves that you are useful, noble, and intelligent." - Regidor will publish in Spain information on Noli me tangere.
1 Mr. Jose A. Ramos, active patriot, first venerable of Logia Nilad, mother of the genuine Filipino masonic lodges, with other patriots, negotiated in Japan in 1896 that at a propitious moment Japan would support the Philippine Revolution. 2 Isabelo de los Reyes, Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor, Dr. Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera, Juan Luna, and Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo, the last two were distinguished painters
Details
1888
September
17
U K
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal's annotations to Morga's history -"Learned modern explorer" - Chirino is too pro-friar and childish - The Noli is banned in the Philippines.

Details
1888
September
30
U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
"Why should we not have a hundred Plaridels?" -- -If my enemies would only write like Father Rodríguez and Font, it would not matter to me; the bad thing is that I have enemies among my countrymen.- -- Rizal is busy.
01 Rizal was negotiating with Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor for the publication of Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas with his annotations. He was disappointed. 02 M. H. del Pilar, La soberanía monacal. New edition published by the Philippine Historical Association in 1957 with an English translation by Encarnación Alzona. Rizal’s contribution is its Appendix X, pages 174-180.
Details
1888
October
3
France
Paris
Reformer
Juan Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Luna deplores the mean revenge on Rizal’s family – Offers his services to Rizal – The family of Pedro Roxas at Paris

Details
1888
October
6
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Extract from a defense of the Noli – reappearance of the newspaper España en Filipinas – Rizal proposed as its director – Father Vicente Garcia, Filipino theologian defends Rizal’s Noli against the attacks of Fr. José Rodriguez.
01 See footnote 2, letter No. 72. 02 Father Vicente Garcia, Filipino clergyman, An English version of his letter is found in Appendix II. 03 Shouting of the populace. 04 Name of the Augustinian convent outside of Manila.
Details
1888
October
12
U K
London
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal reading the old sources of Philippine history - He will not leave London until he has examined all the books and manuscripts relating to our country - "Let Desengaños say what he wants. . . . Who among Filipinos and Spaniards wrote the first insulting books?" - Dr. Rost is an affectionate friend - Like a good father to Rizal.

Details
1888
October
12
U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Father Vicente Garcia’s courage is inspiring – The Noli is being analyzed critically in the Philippines – Rizal: “My work has defects.” – Engaged to manage a periodical – Intensive research in the history of the Philippines in the British Museum to prepare himself for his tasks.
(01) Father Vicente García. (02) Offer to Rizal to manage the magazine, España en Filipinas. (03) Petition of the people of Calamba concerning the Calamba Estate owned by the Dominical friars.
Details
1888
October
13
U K
London
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
A brother-in-law of Rizal banished to Bohol - Without due process of law - The beginning of reprisals? - Booklets for and against Rizal sent to Blumentritt -- Geler's book says many truths - "And if we cannot take revenge, our children and our grandchildren will do it."
1 Raymundo Geler. Spanish author of the work, Islas Filipinas, Resñoa de su organizacion social y administrative. Cf- Page 218 2 "A voice crying in the desert. But, thus would fate. ..."
Details
1888
October
15
Philippines
Cebu
Family
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Banished to Tagbilaran without trial for being a filibustero and Rizal's representative -- Denounced by the Dominican syndicate and its satellites NOTE: This letter was originally published in the Epistolario Rizalino, II, pp. 56-57. It has many missing words but , unfortunately, the original is lost.
(1) Benigno Quiroga Ballesteros (2) The governor general
Details
1888
October
19
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Antonio Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
General desire that Rizal manage a new publication, and should he refuse, Llorente – Lete does not have the sympathy of the Filipinos – He is incompetent.

Details
1888
October
27
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Antonio Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Different factions – Alignment of forces – Rizal, sure of a majority – Advantage if Rizal should manage the periodical.

Details
1888
October
28
France
Paris
Reformer
Valentin Ventura
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Subscription in favor of López Jaena to enable him to return to the Philippines – What will be his fate there? He will fall into the clutches of the friars.
(1) A colloquial expression in the Philippines meaning let them look out.
Details
1888
November

Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Antonio Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Executive Commission of the Asociación Hispano-Filipina – Luna solicits Rizal’s cooperation – Patriotic motive of Luna.

Details
1888
November
1
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The anonymous defender of the Noli is Fr. Vicente Garcia – Homage to Rizal at the banquet in honor of Morayta – More on the new periodical – Rizal is the choice for its director.

Details
1888
November
1
U K
London
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Jesuits and Augustinians no longer want to correspond with Blumentritt - Those who consider that their own opinion is better than that of others are not worthy of our friendship - They have no friends but acolytes - There are not 50 Spaniards like Geler - All the books of Spanish authors distill gall against the Filipinos - Vidal y Soler speaks ill of the Indio - And he is furious when the Filipinos defend their lands against the Spaniards.

Details
1888
November
4
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Evaristo Aguirre
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Asociación Hispano-Filipina – With Morayta as President – Its effect in the Philippines – Division in the Filipino colony of Madrid.

Details
1888
November
8
U K
London
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
It is not true that books are lacking in the Philippines - But the majority of them are of a religious and narcotizing nature – The works of Cantu, Laurant, Dumas, Sue, Victor Hugo, Escrich, and Schiller are read The Indio in general is fond of reading and studying --- Even families P600 income send their children to Manila to study – And despite the fact that the fate it educated men is to have enemies and to be shot - Rizal’s mother said to her husband “Don t send him (Rizal) any more to Manila; he already knows enough if he gets to know more, they are going to behead him
1 Father Martin de Rada wrote a letter to the king of Spain relating the condition of the Indios in the Philippines and the abuses of the Spaniards. His MS. is in the department of MS. of the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris. A native of Pamplona Spain, he became a friar in 1553. By 1557 he was in Mexico; in 1564 he joined Legazpi's expedition and arrived at Cebu in 1565. He went to China and died at sea in 1578.
Details
1888
November
8
U K
London
Reformer
Antonio Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal declines the management of the periodical – Regrets he could not send a telegram of greetings to Morayta on the occasion of the banquet in his honor.
(1) Characteristic Chinese pronunciation of paciencia, patience.
Details
1888
November
9
U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
The attacks of El Páis and Desengaños – Fr. Vicente Garcia’s defense.
1 Pedro Serrano Laktaw. 2 Meaning the Spaniards. 3 Nom de plume of W. E. Retana who wrote an extensive biography of Rizal after his execution: Vida y escritos del Dr. José Rizal, Madrid, 1907.
Details
1888
November
11
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Eduardo Lete
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
España en Filipinas dead – Plan to found a new organ of the Filipino reformists – Lete explains his stand – Accuses Rizal o partiality towards Mariano Cunanan – The question of the review of Rizal’s Noli me tángere – Lete is irritated at Rizal.Correct date is November 11.
(1) Mariano Cunanan of Pampanga who studied agriculture at parish; Rizal’s friend. (2) Julio Llorente, one of the Filipino reformists.
Details
1888
November
11
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Evaristo Aguirre
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mutual true affection – Is Rizal offended by his previous letter? – Again the question of the periodical and Lete.

Details
1888
November
14
U K
London
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
The books Bauernspiegel seem to portray the life of the Filipinos with regard to courtesy - Desengaños says that Blumentritt sees in the Noli the best mirror through which he can look at the Philippines - Rizal declines the offer to manage a periodical - Vidal y Soler asks for Spanish and European immigrants giving them landed property - But not for Orientals - What are colonies for? - Rizal does not agree with the explanation of reason of state - No one ought to go to the neighbor's house and subordinate the interests of the neighbor to his own interests - "We came here," the Spaniards said to our forefathers, "to be your friends; recognize our king and pay him a small tribute and we are going to defend you against your enemies."

Details
1888
November
17
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
He regrets what is happening to Rizal’s brother-in-law – Banquet in honor of Morayta alarms the enemy camp – Desengaños (Retana) does not deserve the attention of the Filipinos – Laudatory phrases of Andres Avelino del Rosario.
(1) Valeriano Weyler, Governor General of the Philippines from 5 June 1888 to 1891. This statement signified that Weyler had fallen under the influence of the friars, of the convents.
Details
1888
November
22
U K
London
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
"The Spaniards did us much good." - But we gave them the most valuable things they demanded: "blood, lands, lives", says Rizal - The tyrannical rule of the Encomenderos - The country would have been absorbed by Islam - Manuel Hidalgo was deported for being Rizal's brother-in-law - His brother and other brothers-in-law were despoiled of their lands by Weyler.
1 Spanish gentlemen invested with military orders who took part in conquest of the islands or rendered here some signal service to the Crown and among whom lands were distributed with the right to collect rentals or tributes in money or any kind from their occupants
Details
1888
November
23
France
Paris
Reformer
Valentin Ventura
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
López Jaena is very much changed with great desire to work – It is useless to have a newspaper in Barcelona – Its entry in the Philippines will not be permitted.
(1) That is to be branded a filibustero by the authorities, the friars. Every enlightened Filipino was so dubbed, and that means he could be arrested, thrown into jail or exiled, and his property confiscated.
Details
1888
December

U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Eduardo Lete
Despite everything that has happened. I remain the same. (no date)
Website of RLY groups this with the 1888 letters Note: This is a fragment of a letter to Eduardo de Lete.
Details
1888
December
3
U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
A letter in Tagalog to Ponce – A letter from Manila published in German newspapers – Discrimination against Anacleto del Rosario.
(1) Rizal was annotating Morga’s Los Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. (2) That is, Weyler reduced the salary for the position when it was known that a Filipino had won in the competitive examination to fill the position.
Details
1888
December
6
U K
London
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal's will send his exchange gift to Dr. Czepelack - The book of Multatuli, Dutch critic, resembles the Noli - Not so virulent -- Shows only one phase of Dutch life in Java -- Rizal elected director of the new Filipino periodical in Madrid.

Details
1888
December
7
U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
A letter for Laktaw sent through Mariano Ponce (Maning) to evade censorship at Manila.
(1) Rizal was working on his Morga edition.
Details
1888
December
10
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Blumentritt wants to defend Rizal's Noli me tangere . POST CARD
1 This phrase is in English in the original German text.
Details
1888
December
25
U K
London
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Data on Ituy in the Annotations to Morga - Two busts modeled by Rizal: Caesar Augustus for Blumentritt and Julius Caesar for Dr. Czepelak - Ponce, Canon, and López Jaena, and Rizal chat about Blumentritt - Personification of kindliness - Christmas eve - Evokes the Grand Genius who preached Truth and Love - He suffered for his mission - But for his sufferings "the world has become better, if not saved."
(1) An intrepid Malayan traveler who wrote about his travel from Maldive Islands to the marvelous Pacific island that he called Tawalisi. According to Rizal, Tawalisi is the Philippines; to Yule, it is Célebes or Sulú; to Sanguinetti, Borneo or Tungkin. (2) Octavius Caesar, called Augustus of the Roman emperors, under whose rule Christ, the Founder of the Religion of Love and Truth, died. Caesar Augustus formed the second triumvirate with Marc Anthony and Lepidus. (3) Julius Caesar, Roman emperor, conqueror of Gaul, before Octavius. He formed the first triumvirate with Caesar, Crassus and Pompey.
Details
1888
December
28
U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Fernando Canon
"Be the interpreter of my sentiments" at the banquet on the 31st of December."

Details
1888
December
28
U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Manuscript of La vision de Fr. Rodríguez sent to Mariano Ponce for publication at Barcelona.
(1) Rizal’s reply to the pamphlets published by Fr. José Rodríguez, an Augustinian friar, attacking the Noli me tángere and its author. Written in a satirical vein.
Details
1888
December
31
U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Compatriots at Barcelona
Address to his Compatriots at Barcelona Alza tu tersa frente juventud filipina, en este dia (Lift up your radiant brow, This day . . .) (1)
(1) From Rizal’s poem A la juventud filipina (To the Philippine Youth) which was awarded a prize in 1897 by the Liceo Aristico Literario de Manila. It is one of the better-known poetic compositions of Rizal. Rizal enjoins young Filipino students at Barcelona to remember always their motherland and serve her. Lift up your radiant brow, / This day, Youth of my native strand! You abounding talents show / Resplendently and grand, / Fair hope of my Motherland!
Details
1889




Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
The surname Mercado for Paciano - The family name is really Mercado - The unhappy memory of '72 when Burgos, Gomez, and Zamora died on the gallows - Brief history of the surname Rizal - Defense o f the Noli translated by the hero.
1 The failure of the uprising of the workers at the Arsenal in Cavite and the mutiny of the Filipino garrison of the Fort of San Felipe, in which the enemies of the Filipino reformers involved the martyrs: Fathers Burgos, Gomez, and Zamora who were garroted in the Field of Bagumbayan, Manila. 2 Father Jose A. Burgos, Filipino martyr, champion of the rights of the Filipino clergy and of the Filipino reformers. 3 Defense of the Noli me tangere
Details
1889
January

Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
He asks for data on Diego Silang’s rebellion – He doubts the veracity of Isabelo de los Reyes’ account.
(1) Rizal was then at London engrossed in historical research at the British Museum. (2) Governor general (1770 – 1776) who defended Manila during the British invasion, 1762-1764.
Details
1889
January

U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
To the Filipinos in Barcelona
Address to the Filipinos at Barcelona signed with his pseudonym, Laong Laan – Rizal rejoices at the unity of the Filipinos – How to prevent disunion – Clear words, clear conscience – A Rizal project – Buy, read critically, all published books on the Philippines – Study and be prepared.

Details
1889
January

U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo del Pilar
Piping Dilat’s” article is restrained but strong – Advantages of knowing foreign languages – “I wrote the Noli me tángere to stir the patriotism of my countrymen.”
(1) One of the pseudonyms of Marcelo H. del Pilar. The other one was “Plaridel”. (2) Soliderio, that is, member of La Solidaridad, name of the association of Filipinos at Barcelona, as well as of their publication.
Details
1889
January

U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
José M. Basa
Basa’s example of writing in defense of the Philippines is inspiring to other Filipinos – To serve a country there is nothing like being in it – Marcelo H. del Pilar did not need to come to Europe – Filipinos are afraid to buy the Noli –He asks Basa to keep the remaining copies lest they be burned – “If the present generation does not like to read me because of fear, I shall keep what I have written for the coming generation” – He does not know if what he is writing will be published.
(1) José M. Basa (1839-1907) was a Filipino who was exiled to the Mariana Islands on account of the Cavite Mutiny of 1872. He was able to escape to Hong Kong where he engaged in business. (2) Buhay Santa Clara. See letter No. 105. (3) M. H. del Pilar, having antagonized the friars, escaped from the country to avoid arrest and imprisonment or exile. (4) Justo Trinidad. (5) His family, influenced by the friars, had stopped sending him an allowance. Hence, he was needy and led a precarious existence. Rizal was trying to help him appealing to the kindness of Mr. José M. Basa, a Filipino exile engaged in business in Hong Kong.
Details
1889
January
1
Spain
Bohol Tagbilaran
Family
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
In exile for being a filibustero -- The people of Bohol are very fanatical

Details
1889
January
6
France
Paris
Reformer
Valentin Ventura
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Everything that is happening in the Philippines is the consequence of Rizal’s Campaign – Gobernadocillo of Sta. Ana – Ventura’s opinion of the Asociación Hispano-Filipina – Bad news from the Philippines.
(1) His true name was Justo Trinidad. Author of the petition of the gobernadorcillos in 1888 he incurred the animosity of the Spanish authorities. He left the country to avoid persecution. Santa Ana is a district of Manila. (2) Pedro Payo, archbishop of Manila, notorious for his anti-Filipino sentiments. (3) Associación Hispano-Filipina. (4) He refers to Governor General Valariano Weyler (Commissioned from June, 1888 to 1891).
Details
1889
January
6
U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal sends Ponce a post card from London, 6 January 1889 requesting him to make a correction in La vision de Fr. Rodriguez – Because Archbishop Payo is dead, soften the harsh statements, he says.

Details
1889
January
8
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
La visión de Fr. Rodríguez is very well written – To be published by the Filipinos at Barcelona – Perhaps del Pilar may be able to put an end to dissidence and rivalry – The Board of Directors of the La Solidaridad association – Rizal’s letter, read at the banquet, received warm applause.

Details
1889
January
12
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Silvester Ubaldo
Dear Brother
Abuses of the administrator of the Hacienda -- Persecution of his sister Lucia -- Cheerless town feast -- Need for reforms in local government -- Need for a book written Tagalog --La España Oriental, new bilingual periodical -- "It is impossible to live in peace as long as there are friars."
(1) Rural police
Details
1889
January
14
U K
London
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Association Internationale des Philippinistes - To hold a congress during the Exposition at Paris - Rizal asks Blumentritt for advice and suggestions to improve it - Awaiting the Exequatur - Mac Havelaar's book.

Details
1889
January
15
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Antonio Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
It is doubtful that the Spaniards would come to offer us rights and liberties that they enjoy – Pessimism about the successes of the association La Solidaridad.
(1) Slip of the pen. (2) Even Antonio sometimes nods, a paraphrase of Horace’s “alquando bonus dormitat Homerus” (even good Homer sometimes nods). (3) Associación Hispano-Filipina.
Details
1889
January
28
U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Members of La Solidaridad
Rizal made Honorary President of the association La Solidaridad – He sends greetings and proffers prudent advice.

Details
1889
January
31
U K
London
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Condolence on the misfortunes of Austria - Blumentritt accepts the Presidency of the International Association of Philippinists - We wish to obtain the happiness of the Philippines through noble and just means - "If I had to comment a villainy to make her happy, I would decline to do it." - Casal's book is not veracious.
(1) End of letter is missing.
Details
1889
February

U K
London
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Awaiting Blumentritt's opinion in order to improve the prospectus of the International Association of Philippinists - Doctors Meyer, Jagor, and Czepelack nominated by Rizal.
The letter is not sure of the date "London (February 188?)
Details
1889
February

U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Women of Malolos
Complying with Plaridel’s request Rizal writes a long letter to the young women of Malolos It’s message is for all Filipino women.
[01] Fanciful tales in verse in the vernacular. [02] “Tubo ko’y dakilá . . .” “Day Selya”, Florante at Laura by Franciso Baltazar.
Details
1889
February
1
Unknown

Reformer
Pedro Serrano Laktaw
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Serrano allows himself to be deceived in order to satisfy everybody and not to inconvenience anyone – Signs his letter “P. Doré” – The Jesuits are trying to dissuade him from going abroad to study.

Details
1889
February
4
U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Rizal writes Marcelo H. del Pilar that he is glad for the publication of La Solidaridad – The excessive Ilocano tendencies of Isabelo de los Reyes apropos the question of Diego Silang – Testimony of historians – Italian manuscripts about the Philippines – one of the Filipinos at Barcelona should study Italian – Rizal is presently studying Dutch.
[01] Sine baldo de mas, Informe sobre el estado de las Islas Filipinas en 1842, Madrid 1843. [02] Joaquin Martínez de Zúñiga, Historia de las Islas Filipinas. [03] Juan de la Concepción, Historia general de Filipinas. Manila 1788. [04] Diego de Aduarte, Historia de la Provincia del Santo Rosario de las Orden ae Predicadores en Filipinas, Japon, y China, 1640. [05] Literally, for one’s house; that is, to plead for one’s own cause. From Cicero’s harangue upon his return from exile, pleading for the return of his property confiscated during his absence by the patrician Clodius. [06] La vision de Fr. Rodríguez.
Details
1889
February
6
U K
London
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
A section proposed by Blumentritt: Races and independent regions - Two members from each nation - Drs. Meyer and Kern nominated to the Board of Directors of the International Association of Philippinists - A letter of introduction to Dr. Kern.

Details
1889
February
14
U K
London
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Adolf Bernhard Meyer
Meyer is on the Executive board of the International Association of Philippinists – Appointment of a Dutch member left to Dr. Meyer.

Details
1889
February
17
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Birth of La Solidaridad on 15 February1889 – The campaign of the women of Malolos – “I request you to write to those girls.” -- Rizal’s article “Los viajes” could not be published in the first issue for lack of space.
[01] La Solidaridad was first published in Barcelona; then it was moved to Madrid in 1890 where it continued until 15 November 1895. [02] The library of the Ateneo Barcelonés, a library and scholarly society in Barcelona. [03] The Tagalog aristocracy.
Details
1889
February
22
U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Suggestions for La Solidaridad – Rizal promises to write “articles of great interest” – A long message in Tagalog to the young women of Malolos – He asks del Pilar to correct it as his Tagalog is getting rusty – See that it does not fall into the hands of the friars.

Details
1889
February
27
U K
London
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Adolf Bernhard Meyer
Dr. Niumann declines the post of counselor of the International Association of Philippinists.
The name is Dr. Nemann (L. Spittael)
Details
1889
March

France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal would like to make a big book of La defense de Corcuera – Asks Ponce to take steps to join La Solidaridad of Barcelona with that of Madrid.
[01] Ponce asked Rizal to write an introduction to this work. Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera, was a Spanish governor -general between 1635-1644. He made enemies among the religious orders. When he resigned, his enemies prevented his return to Spain and succeeded to have him imprisoned in Fort Santiago for five years. Upon his release, he became governor of the Canary Islands.
Details
1889
March

France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Success of La Soberanía – This work has no chaff but all grain – “We shall fight Font” – Always cite Blumentritt, Pilapil, Peláez, or Burgos, etc. in every issue of La Solidarídad – Build a reference library.

Details
1889
March

France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Graciano López Jaena
Club Kidlat –Enthusiasm for La Solidaridad at Paris – Advice to López Jaena – Rizal promises to support La Solidaridad and send articles – The periodical is improving.
[01] Tagalog for lightning. [02] M. H. del Pilar’s pamphlet, La soberanía monacal en Filipinas, that Rizal admired.
Details
1889
March

France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Graciano López Jaena
Though ill, Rizal sends an article to La Solidaridad – He orders more copies of Soberanía and Visión.
[01] In the issue for 15 March 1889 of La Solidaridad Rizal had two unsigned articles: Los agricultures Filipinos (Filipino Farmers) and El solfeo de La Defensa (The Lash of La Defensa), as well as “Colonial Review of World News.”
Details
1889
March

Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Fruitless search for Escosura’s reports – Los Defensor, is silent – The Filipinos at Barcelona will need Rizal’s advice regarding their association.

Details
1889
March
3
U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Graciano López Jaena
Rizal sends López Jaena a post card congratulating him on his “Superb Speech” delivered at the Ateneo Barcelona entitled “The Philippines at the Universal Exposition of Barcelona” – Suggestions for the improvement of La Solidaridad.
[01] A Filipino student at London. According to Epistolario Rizalino this is dated as March 5, 1889
Details
1889
March
3
U K
London
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Rizal praises del Pilar’s La soberanía monacal en Filipinas – “Onward and write” he says – He can now die – Plaridel can take his place – He would like to see emerge 20 or 30 young men who are two or three times more worthy than he.
[01] This is La soberanía monacal, published at Barcelona in 1889. It is a forceful denunciation of the domination of the friars over the Philippines. Hence, at the end of his letter Rizal says it is a work for Spain, while his Noli is for the Philippines. Rizal helped with enthusiasm in the distribution of Plaridel’s work. [02] Plaridel wears a mustache in his well-known portraits. Rizal mentions his beard; he might have worn one at that time. [03] In Rizal’s day, oftentimes Tagalog was used to mean any and all Filipinos. Plaridel was, of course, a Tagalog speaker, being a native of Bulakan. 04] This offer to the gobernadorcillos of the districts of Manila who signed a petition for certain reforms. They were persecuted and one of them, Mr. Justo Trinidad, fled to Europe. [05] Benigno Quiroga Ballesteros was the director general of civil administration in 1889.
Details
1889
March
3
France
Paris
Others
Valentin Ventura
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Hotel prices in Paris rising on account of the forthcoming exposition – Offers Rizal a room in his house.

Details
1889
March
8
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Antonio Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
An insulting article by Quioquiap in El Día – Asks Rizal to answer it – A country where insult is permitted but not defense – The need for a Filipino newspaper in Madrid – Dominador Gómez.
[01] Pablo Feced y Temprano was a Spaniard who resided in the Bikol region and who was noted for derogatory articles against Filipinos. [02] Dominador Gómez who later, under the American regime was identified with the Philippine labor movement. He was a fiery orator often caricatured holding an anahaw fan.
Details
1889
March
10
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
M. H. del Pilar values highly Rizal’s praise of his La soberanía monacal – Rizal has no right yet to die – All the darts that are hurled against his name are received in the hearts of those who cherish him – Case of the gobernadorcillos who signed the petition for the expulsion of the friars.
[01] Justo Trinidad.
Details
1889
March
11
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
S. Jugo Vidal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Regrets the outrages against Rizal’s family – But not all Spaniards think alike – Some Spanish newspapers, above all those of the republican press, do justice to Rizal – Every Filipino should contribute something toward the education of his compatriots – Asks Rizal for articles for his periodical, La Vanguardia.
[01] A newspaper espousing a Republican form of government rather than a government under a Monarch.
Details
1889
March
12


Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The number of pages of La Solidaridad is increased, following Rizal’s suggestion – Publication of Rizal’s article “Agricultores” – Copies of Rizal’s “Visión,” etc. sent to Manila – Sale of the Noli.

Details
1889
March
12
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Graciano López Jaena
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
He asks Rizal to tell the Filipinos in Madrid not to be prejudiced against La Solidaridad -- Need for unity and fraternity -- Congratulates Rizal on La visión de Fr. Rodríguez – Asks for articles.

Details
1889
March
19
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal wishes to publish the Ethnography o f Mindanao by Blumentritt and his Defense - Kidlat Club.

Details
1889
March
19
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
The best poem of Rizal in his own opinion – Rizal advises Filipinos to buy books by Filipinos and to mention in their writings names of Filipinos like Peláez, García, Burgos, Graciano, and others in their writings – The third number of La Solidaridad is better than the first two – He regrets La Defensa was not answered.
[01] In 1882 the Cículo Hispano-Filipino of Madrid requested that the Me piden versos be written. [02] Rizal explains his nom de plume: Laong Laang, a Tagalog phrase meaning “only old.” The other phrase Láong laan means “long ready.” [03] This poem is not found in the collection of Rizal’s poems published by the Philippine National Library in 1946. [04] Critics do not agree as to which is this poem. [05] La Defensa is a Catholic newspaper of Manila. [06] The Spanish author Patricio de la Escosura who was anti-Filipino and a defender of the friars. One of his books is Memoria sobre Filipinas y Joló, written in 1863 and 1864, but published at Madrid in 1882. [07] Rizal refers to those articles written against the Filipinos. [08] Rizal would like Filipino thinkers and writers to be know, for ignorance about the Philippines was prevalent and some writers stressed only their unfavorable expressions of the country and of its people.
Details
1889
March
26
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Finished chapters of Blumentritt’s Memoir
The letter do not have the date indicated but the letter is grouped as "95. Blumentritt, Leitmeritz, Austria 26 March 1889"
Details
1889
March
28
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Mrs. Rosa de Blumentritt compliments Rizal with a table¬cloth -- Rizal will model Blumentritt's bust -- It is folly to portray all the Peninsular Spaniards as angels.

Details
1889
April
1
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
P. Catog
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Discovery of arms and munitions in Santa Mesa – Rumors of rebellion – Confiscation of printed matter from Hong Kong – Imprisonments.
[01] An eastern district of Manila. [02] A northern district of Manila. [03] A fashionable shopping street in Manila. [04] A wealthy Filipino businessman. [05] Railroad terminal in the northwestern part of Manila.
Details
1889
April
2
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Members o La Solidaridad
Rizal writes the members of La Solidaridad of Madrid about troubles in the Philippines – Imprisonments and abuses, the necessary evil of a corrupt society – How the Filipinos can show themselves worthy of liberty -- Calainos has more faith than all the friars put together – Liberty cannot be obtained without pain or merit – That the outraged take their case to court, and, if not, appeal to God. . . – Friar threats do not frighten nor do their nonsense deceive – The booklets of Fr. Rodríguez – Only what is instructive and didactic should be written – The International Association of Philippinists –An article of Rizal entitled La muerte de Magallanes – Filipinos should not accept anything from the friars in Rizal’s opinion.
[01] Derived from the name of Rizal’s hometown of Calamba or Kalamba. A native of the town is sometimes referred to as Calambeño or Calambano. Rizal, therefore, refers to himself. [02] One who makes light of. [03] A German periodical. [04] Booklet VI is entitled ¿Hay o no hay infierno? (Is there or is there no Hell?); booklet VII ¿Que le parece a V. de esos libelos? (What do you think of those libels?) The author, Fr. José Rodríguez, was an Augustinian friar who attacked Rizal and his novel Noli me tángere. The other booklets in the series: I: ¿Porque no los he de leer? (Why should I not read them?); II. Guardaos de ellos ¿Por que? (Beware of them. Why?); III. ¿Y que me dice usted de la peste? (And what can you tell me of plague?); IV. ¿Porque triunfan lo impios? (Why do the impious triumph?); V. ¿Cree usted que versa no ha purgatorio? (Do you think there’s really no Purgatory?); VIII. O confession o condenación (Either confession or damnation). [05] Hollow, circular vessels with sloping sides for holding liquids. In colloquial speech, the name for urinals. [06] Fr. Salvador Font was appointed procurator of the Augustinian order in Spain in 1889. His mission, it was believed, was to sow discord among the Filipinos residing there.
Details
1889
April
8
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Outrages – Unrighteousness of negotiating for the prisoners’ extrajudicial release – Steps to cheer those who live in oppression and to deny the allegation of lack of civilization and indifference of the Filipinos – Discrimination against Painter Juan Luna.
[01] Spanish artists opposed giving space to Luna’s paintings at the Paris exposition.
Details
1889
April
10
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
The magnificent Defense of Blumentritt translated by Ri¬zal - If our sufferings had not been well known, it was because we did not have one Las Casas - Proofs of the maltreatment of the Indios are found in the works of de los Rios, Gaspar de San Agustin, etc. - All the Quioquiaps are not worth even one-half of Blumentritt - Withdraw from the fight!
1 Father Fernando de los Rios Coronel, procurator, in a letter to the king, said that Sultan Zaide of Ternate, Prince Tagulima, and the principales Kachiles, notwithstanding the safe-conduct issued to them by Governor Bravo de Acuña, were subjected to maltreatment and imprisoned in the time of Juan de Silva, lodging them in "a room that was inundated when it rained and where they were left to perish of hunger, having to live by begging. All became sick and died. In order to insure the possession of Ternate, they got hold of the royal family through fraud." See Dr. Antonio de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, Rizal Edition, 1890, note 1, p. 2 Felipe del Pan, pro-Filipino, director of La Oceania Española, father of Mr. Rafael del Pan, who was appointed delegate by the Revolutionary Government to ask the U.S. Congress for the recognition of the Philippine Republic. Later, he was appointed member of the Code Committee. 3 Pablo Feced, Spanish journalist, detractor of Filipinos and things Philippine.
Details
1889
April
18
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Graciano López Jaena
“Praise briefly only true friends without calling them friends: exaggerated praise for fellow countrymen who are attached to the friars and call them friends and depict them as anti-friars.”
[01] A la defense – An unsigned article by Rizal answering the attacks of the pro-friar periodical. Published in La Solidaridad, No. 6, 30 April 1889.
Details
1889
April
18
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Style of La Solidaridad – just, sober, and clear – “Without 1872 there would not have been either Plaridel, or Jaena, or Saniangco; without 1872, Rizal would now be a Jesuit.” -- Do not be perturbed because some fall – The tests of fire and cautery – What are lacking are those who may give an example to the people and rouse their enthusiasm as the Christian martyrs did – Nobody knows how to behave at the critical moment of death; it is so repugnant to die hanged and young with ideas in the head – “The day you should see me in the clutches of the friars, try to put another in my place who may revenge me.” – Urges the Filipinos to show more valor, more abnegation, less fear of death and torture.
[01] Blumentritt’s review of Noli me tágere with an introduction by Rizal. [02] A reference to the martyrdom of Father José Burgos, Father Mariano Gomez, and Father Jacinto Zamora who were publicly garroted on 17 February 1872. [03] Rizal was still a child when his patriotic sentiments became manifest. [04] Rizal foresees the overthrow of the oppressive Spanish colonial regime. [05] Those who reject the customary beliefs in morality, religion, etc. [06] An ongoing movement in Russia (c. 1860-1917 [1917 = the Bolsheviks overthrow the Czarist government]) at the time of the writing of this letter dated 1889. The Nihilists advocated revolutionary reform and attempted to carry it out through the use of terrorism and assassination. [07] Rizal refers to his return to the Philippines in 1887 when his Noli me tágere was rousing friar indignation. His family and friends prevailed upon him to leave the Philippines, which he did in February 1888, sailing for Japan by way of Hong Kong.
Details
1889
April
23
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Postponement of the congress of the International Association of Philippinists in Paris - Rizal invites Blumentritt to the Exposition -- A congress of friendship - Blumentritt may use Manuel Hidalgo's letter - Data published by Dr. Joest in Kolner Zeitung.
1 Dr. Reinhold Rost, librarian of the British Ministry of Foreign Affairs, admirer of Rizal. 2 The international conference of Philippinists projected by Rizal, 3 The International Association of Philippinists conceived by Rizal. 4 Felix Pardo de Tavera , brother of Dr. Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera .5. Dr. W. Joest, professor at the University of Berlin, distinguished geographer. 6 Kölner Zeitung(Cologne Newspaper). 7. Ethnography of Mindanao by Blumentritt 1 A card game of chance
Details
1889
April
27
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
S. Jugo Vidal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
While radical remedies are not taken, publishing periodicals is not superfluous – He asks Rizal to write for La Vanguardia Filipina.
[01] La Vanguardia Filipina. [02] That is, in the Philippines.
Details
1889
April
30
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal asks Mariano Ponce to come to Paris to see the Exposition – He proposes a conference in Paris between Rizal, Plaridel, Apacible, López, Jaena, Blumentritt, Llorente, and Canon – Rizal breaks contract with Regidor for the printing of his Morga edition.
[01] Antonio Ma. Regidor, Filipino lawyer and capitalist, had promised Rizal to defray the cost of printing Rizal’s Morga edition. With the manuscript readied, Regidor vacillated, thus compelling Rizal to take this step. [02] Rizal’s London residence. [03] Rizal’s article, A La Defensa (To La Defensa).
Details
1889
May

France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal desirous of maintaining unity among Filipinos at any cost – the differences ought to be submitted to a tribunal elected by the interested parties.
NHI listed this as (Paris, May 1889)
Details
1889
May
2
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Fernando Canon
Birth of a son of Canon – Rizal’s sadness upon thinking that one more being with Filipino blood could later become a lost member for a county that needs men – “all honorable men of the world are compatriots.”
[01] Fernando Canon married a Spanish woman. [02] Pertaining to Anacreon, a 6th Greek lyric poet noted for light and graceful verses. [03] Certain verse forms used by Sappho, a Greek poetess. [04] Roasted suckling pig. [05] Chopped sweetbreads seasoned with vinegar and salt and cooked with blood, hence its name dinuguan, a Tagalog term literally meaning “with blood.”
Details
1889
May
8
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
A sarcastic article - The author, like a cat pursuing a little mouse -- Quioquiap - After ten years without reforms, there will occur a great revolution in the Philippines, according to Pardo de 'Tavera like very much its serious and exhortatory

Details
1889
May
15
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Manuscript of the satiric article Por teléfono by Rizal is sent to Ponce for publication in booklet form – It is too comical for La Solidaridad.
[01] Blumentritts’ review of Noli me tángere with an introduction by Rizal. [02] A satirical article about the Augustinian friar Salvador Font signed by “Dimas Alang,” a pseudonym of Rizal, of which 2,000 copies were printed in 1889 for ten pesos in Barcelona.
Details
1889
May
18
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Marcelo H. del Pilar ??
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
T. H. Pardo de Tavera’s lively imagination – We ought to protect ourselves from the intrigues of the enemies and the candor of friends – Racial antagonism in the break with the one who had promised to publish Rizal’s work? – Petition presented to the Ministry of Colonies published in La Solidaridad.
[01] This is probably an allusion to T. H. Pardo de Tavera (1857-1925). [02] By this time Rizal is beginning to doubt the efficacy of the attempts of the Filipinos in Spain to obtain reforms for their country through writing, through peaceful means. M. H. del Pilar asks Rizal if the “proper time” has come. One assumes that this refers to a time of action and the use of force. [03] Idle chatter, a reference to the friars. NOTE: The ending of this letter is lost and therefore it is without the writer’s signature. By its content and style it seems to be a copy of a letter of Marcelo H. del Pilar. (The original copy of this letter is housed in the National Library).
Details
1889
May
20
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal contributes 200 marks to Blumentritt's travelling expenses to Paris - Reprinting of Morga by Rizal - - Blumentritt will write the prologue and criticism

Details
1889
May
20
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Complete break with Regidor. Rizal, himself, will publish his Morga edition – Regrets that Panganiban’s article on education was not continued – Estimates the expenses for Filipinos who may want to come to Paris.
[01] Rizal’s article entitled Cómo se engaña a la Patria (How to Deceive the Motherland) appeared without signature in La Solidaridad for 15 May 1889. La Voz e España was a daily newspaper published in Manila by the friars. [02] The articles on education were unsigned. Their author was José María Panganiban whose pen name was “Jomapa.” See letter no. 125 of M. H. del Pilar. [03] An essay by Rizal on the cultural values of travel.
Details
1889
May
21
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Publication of Rizal’s Por telépono in booklet form like La vision de Fr. Rodriguez – La soberanía monacal is advertised in La Solidaridad.

Details
1889
May
22
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
S. Jugo Vidal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The disunity existing between the Filipinos in Madrid is incomprehensible – Excepting Dominador Gómez the Filipinos at Madrid seem to be afraid to write.

Details
1889
May
24
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
“La Verdad para todos” by Rizal and “¿ Filibusteros?” by Blumentritt in La Solidaridad – La Vanguardia Filipina is afraid of Philippine affairs – Another Asociación Hispano-Filipina in Madrid? – Possible martingale to divide the Filipino colony – News of Panganiban – Awaited arrival of Pedro Roxas, wealthy Filipino.
[01] Fr. Salvador Font, an Augustinian friar and an enemy of Rizal. NOTE: a martingale is the strap of a horse’s harness passing from the noseband to the girth between the forelegs, to keep the horse from rearing or throwing back its head and thus a metaphor for an organization to keep Filipinos compliant. [02] That is Universidad de Santo Tomás de Manila. For some years its official name was Universidad de Manila. [03] Pedro Roxas, a Filipino capitalist, and brother of Francisco Roxas who was executed by the Spaniards during the Philippine revolution.
Details
1889
May
24
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Nothing disturbs the harmony of the Filipino colony in Barcelona – Insulting article published in La Nación by Antonio Rodríguez de Ureta against La Solidaridad and its staff – Rizal’s article “La verdad para todos” Barrantes’ El teatro tagalo deserves to be answered.
TO READ RIZAL’S REBUTTAL IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION RIGHT CLICK HERE è ./../Other/barrantes_tag_theater.htm
Details
1889
May
26
Philippines
Calamba
Reformer
M. Elejorde
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
A resident of Calamba writes Rizal in Tagalog sending him a little contribution from his friends – Everyone is asking for him and regards him as the “Second Jesus Christ,” their savior – Sad news – Asks for the continuation of the Noli me tángere.
[01] This is a reference to Rizal’s project to hold an International Congress of Philippinists in Paris during the exposition of 1889. The project never materialized.
Details
1889
May
26
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal sends Ponce a post card with his reply to Barrantes.
[01] Rizal’s reply “Barrantes and the Tagalog Theater” was published in La Solidaridad, on 15 June 1889.
Details
1889
June
3
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal sends Ponce a post card with instructions on the disposal of a certain sum of money – Dr. T. H. Pardo de Tavera subscribes to La Solidaridad – Juan Luna and Valentin Ventura are members of the La Solidaridad Association.

Details
1889
June
4
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
You fight for our country and you imbue us with valor - Ready to unsheathe our swórd in your defense- "There is a God for honorable persons."

Details
1889
June
13
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Pedro Govantes
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Govantes, Spanish lawyer who was born in the Philippines, holds the title of Conde de Albay and is grateful to Rizal for his letter of sympathy on the death of his father, Felipe Govantes - Ideas are not an obstacle to the mutual admiration between political adversaries.

Details
1889
June
18
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Rizal sends a corrected article by Blumentritt – He regrets typographical errors in La Solidaridad – Send a copy of Soberanía to T. H. Pardo de Tavera – Circulo Hispano-Filipino – It is a good idea to live together as a republic without any other law except that of strict equality and justice. – He wants hasten the printing of Blumentritt’s defense of the Noli.

Details
1889
June
19
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Genius, according to Heine, feels out of place in a foreign country - But that of Blumentritt feels, as at home, writing in Spanish -- good champion of our cause - Rizal’s “Prologue” to Blumentritt's Defense of the Noli.

Details
1889
June
22
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
P. Roxas and the patriotic movement – In the crusade we are engaged in I should not like comedians and merchants to take a part – Do not ask for heroism from the purse – Drop the pseudonyms; whoever wishes to take part in the crusade should have renounced beforehand one’s life and fortune – The persecution of Rizal and Plaridel is due to the fact that they are isolated – The day when they shall abound, they can love peacefully – God did not support those who fought for their own interests – Force will bed the last resort.
[01] Rizal and his fellow reformists had enough practical sense to realize that their patriotic efforts needed financial backing; hence their eagerness to enlist the support of the wealthy Mr. Pedro Roxas. [02] By Antonio Ma. Regidor. [03] Rizal alludes to the numberless uprisings that occurred during the Spanish regime. [04] The author of the articles was a woman, Antonia Rodríguez de Ureta. Blumentritt answered one of the articles, Una observación (An Observation), with an article Una overtencia (A Warning) in La Solidaridad, 31 May 1889. About this authoress see Rizal’s letter to Blumentritt, 23 June 1889.
Details
1889
June
23
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Translating Blumentritt’s Memoir – Let Dona Antonia trill – She does not deserve any attention – A whore in Manila, Barcelona and Paris.

Details
1889
June
23
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Ponce sends a postcard to Rizal asking for his permission to issue a reply to Barrantes in pamphlet form. Printing of Blumentritt’s defense of Noli me tángere almost finished.

Details
1889
July

France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Power of attorney in favor of Pedro de Govantes, a practicing Spanish lawyer at Madrid with reference to the case of his brother-in-law Manuel Hidalgo, deported without trial.
[01] A pet name of Marcelo H. del Pilar. NHI (July 1889?) L. Spittael
Details
1889
July
1
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Pedro Serrano Laktaw
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
O. R. Serna, anagram of Serrano, Tagalog Lexicographer, assumes a role to mislead the friars and Jesuits.

Details
1889
July
1
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal regrets Panganiban’s illness – He is a very useful man – Filipinos in Paris impatiently await La Solidaridad – Rizal cannot find his articles “El Filibusterismo” and “La opinion en Filipinas”
[01] The spitting or coughing up of blood: usually caused by bleeding of the lungs or bronchi.
Details
1889
July
3
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal's translation of a work of Blumentritt-The silence of the adversaries.

Details
1889
July
9
Philippines
Binondo
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Panganiban improves – López Jaena disheartened – Del Pilar bears all the work of the periodical – Panganiban’s study of the University of Manila [i.e. University of Santo Tomas] – Arrival of Sandico – Printing of Blumentritt’s defense of the Noli me tángere – The La Solidaridad association has lost membership.
[01] A teacher, a General in the Philippine Revolution, a Governor of Bulacan and Senator of the Philippines under the American regime, and a labor leader. [02] Quioquiap was the pen name for Pablo Feced y Temprano. He was a Spaniard who resided in the Bikol region who was noted for his anti-Filipino writings.
Details
1889
July
12
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Rizal writes del Pilar in Tagalog and sends him the Contribution of 200 pesetas of the Calambeños to La Solidaridad – Issues of the periodical for the Philippines – Regards to Sandico – Regidor’s article Diputado por Filipinas – For being Rizal’s brother-in-law, Mariano Herbosa was not allowed to be buried in Holy ground.
[01] A play on words “Barrantes”; desbarrar means to throw an iron bar without taking aim. [02] Rizal translated it into Spanish. [03] Mariano Herbosa. Rizal’s article, Una profanación (A Desecration) that was published in La Solidaridad, 31 July 1889, deals with his burial.
Details
1889
July
15
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
A deceased brother-in-law of Rizal was denied burial in the cemetery - For having died without confession, as he died suddenly of cholera - "He will be converted into dust just the same in his solitary grave on the hill." - Quioquiap irrelevant, he changes the subject - Do you want to answer him?

Details
1889
July
19
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal writes Ponce in Tagalog ordering more copies of Soberanía and Defensa –He asks Ponce to send copies to Manila, Fr. Font, and Fr. Rodríguez.

Details
1889
July
20
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Balaguer seems to be inclined to the extreme right of our Filipino party- In Manililla Blumentritt's works are called stupidities. POST CARD
1 A satirical periodical published at Manila.
Details
1889
July
22
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
A post card from Rizal giving instructions to Ponce about the publication of his two articles in La Solidaridad.
[01] Verdades nuevas (New Truths) and Una profanación (A Desecration). [02] An article by Blumentritt. [03] See letter 148.
Details
1889
July
23
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Morga's history of the Philippines is now in press -¬Prologue by Blumentritt -Two articles by Rizal in La Solidaridad.
1 Los Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas with annotations by Rizal and prologue by Blumentritt. Garnier Frères, Paris, 1890. 2 Published in La Solidaridad, 15 November 1889. 3 “Profanation”, La Solidaridad, 31 July 1889
Details
1889
July
30
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Blumentritt is the best Philippinist - Rizal busy with his book - Good news from the Philippines - Young and old agree with the reformists in Madrid - They salute the defenders of Filipino rights -- La Opinion has changed its policy.
1 Segismundo Moret, minister of colonies, recognized liberal, who favored the secularization of the Universidad de Sto. Tomas de Manila. 2 Pseudonym of the fighting journalist Marcelo H. del Pilar, director of La Solidaridad. La Opinion has turned traitor to its principles and has sold itself. There was a change in the editorial staff. Other com¬pletely different ideas predominate there now.
Details
1889
August
3
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The suicidal sacrosancta sirnplicitas of our adversaries - Barking dogs POST CARD
1 Holy simplicity
Details
1889
August
13
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal is very busy with many writings at the same time – He would like to correct the proofs of “Por teléfono.”

Details
1889
August
16
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Struggle between a useful worker (Blumentritt) and an idler (Manililla) - In the attacks of Manililla there are no jokes, or brains, or replies to Blumentritt's arguments. - "Once and for all."
1 Publicly.
Details
1889
August
17
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Pedro Serrano Laktaw
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Serrano writes in Tagalog in the third person – He sends Rizal 240 pesos for El Filibusterismo.
[01] Tagalog for Mr. [02] An admirer of Rizal sends him advance payment for the second part of the Noli me tángere = the El Filibusterismo.
Details
1889
September
3
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Waiting for Rizal’s letters

Details
1889
September
8
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal sends his reply to an article against him published in La Patria.
[01] Rizal answered articles quickly. In the issue of La Solidaridad for 15 September 1889 there appeared an article of Rizal entitled Diferencias that was a humorous reply to the anti-Filipino periodical, La Patria.
Details
1889
September
9
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Distinguished young men of Lipa with Rizal will visit Blumentritt - Moret in Paris wishes to know the author of Noli me tangere - Spaniards and employees from Manila fraternize with Rizal in Paris - "Also I should like to find myself with some friars; perhaps we may be able to settle many things."
1 The painter Juan Luna (1857-1899) married to Paz Pardo de Tavera, sister of Dr. T. H. Pardo de Tavera
Details
1889
September
9
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal announces to Ponce in a post card of Pedro Roxas’ trip to Madrid -- Call on him secretly – Angel Marcaida, a Filipino, would like to read Rizal’s reply to Barrantes – Rizal is about to finish his annotations to Morga.
[01] This is a reference to the friars, who shaved off a part of their hair as a symbol of their entrance into the monastic state. [02] Angel Marcaida was a Filipino (a Spanish mestizo) belonging to a rich Manila family.
Details
1889
September
10
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
He is pleased with Plaridel's pamphlet –Peninsular Spaniards who defend Blumentritt

Details
1889
September
12
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Quioquiap’s childish questions POST CARD

Details
1889
September
21
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
José Ma. Basa
Inconvenience of printing the signature of Isaac Fernando de los Rios on articles written by Filipinos – A society for the propagation of useful information – Watchwords – Plaridel in Paris – Transfer of La Solidaridad to Madrid and its conversion into a weekly.
1. It is not right for us to use false names, for it is desirable that what we say and write be serious and defensible. 2. If we use these wiles, our enemies can do the same to us and publish articles purporting to be signed by me or by Plaridel and then we shall have no right to complain and protest. 3. That the name of Isaac Fernando is much discredited and our ideas lose their force when they appear under his name. 4. That we do not need either his authority or his name to give luster to what we uphold, nor do we need to make him quarrel with the friars, for we do not want him in our party. We would consider ourselves dishonored by entertaining the same ideas as he does. 5. That our ideas dignify him in the eyes of our countrymen and he can thereby acquire prestige and thus we are ruined. Those who do not know him will take him for a great patriot and later he will utilize this reputation to hurt us, and those who know him will regard us as low and knavish as he is, which is nothing pleasant. 6. And lastly, that I am always in favor of a noble and open policy, for our cause is so and does not need to employ such methods to triumph. With a noble and courageous policy, each article coming out signed by the true name of its author, we shall raise the spirit of our timid countrymen who will see that we are not afraid but that we have confidence in our success. Thus our enemies will become afraid upon encountering resolute and devoted men.
Details
1889
September
22
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Indios Bravos
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Indios Bravos informs Rizal of their return to Madrid.
[01] The name adopted by a group of Filipinos. “Indio” was the name the Spaniards applied to the natives of the Philippines; “bravo” means “brave.”
Details
1889
September
22
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Two statuettes by Rizal: A beggar and a girl with basket - A cigarette case of nito, gift to Blumentritt - Moret shows a good disposition towards the Filipinos.
Two statuettes by Rizal: A beggar and a girl with basket - A cigarette case of nito, gift to Blumentritt - 1. Philippine fern from which is obtained material used in making fine hats and cigarette cases (Lygodium dichotomum SW.). 2 Segismundo Moret, then president of the Council of Ministers of Spain. 3 A governor general of unhappy memory in the Philippines for his violent procedure in the Kalamba conflict. He also served as governor of Cuba. 4 Men of goodwill.
Details
1889
September
23
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Ponce inquires about the proofs of Memoria of Blumentritt – He asks Rizal for an article for La Solidaridad – Where can he obtain a copy of Pardo de Tavera’s El sáncristo en la lengua Tagalog?

Details
1889
September
24
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Ponce informs Rizal of the receipt of a telegram about a simulated revolution in order to have a pretext to shoot Filipinos – At his country house in Malinta Governor Weyler is in frequent consultation with the friars.

Details
1889
September
26


Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal advises Ponce with regard to the telegram about the simulated revolution.

Details
1889
September
28
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The Filipinos have such a generous heart that one cannot compete with them - Azcarraga wishes to correspond with Blumentritt - News about Dr. Jagor.

Details
1889
October
5
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Indios Bravos
Rizal and other Filipino reformists in Spain adopt the name Indios Bravos (literally, Brave Indians) – Rizal shows concern about unfavorable reports on an Indio Bravo – He is desirous of maintaining their unsullied reputation.

Details
1889
October
9
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Antonio Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Luna writes Rizal that there was no reason for coldness between them – Encourage the Indios Bravos to take up target practice.

Details
1889
October
10
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Julio Llorente
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Llorentes requests Rizal to speak to Juan Luna about Estenan Figueroa who received an offer to work at the Imprenta Ramirez in Manila.
[01] See letter 154 of José Rizal to José Ma. Basa, wherein he explains the purpose of the association: “Well now inspired by your zeal and activity, we have decided to establish a society whose only purpose is the diffusion in the Philippines of all useful knowledge, be it scientific, artistic, literary, etc. It imposes no other obligation on the members except to favor one another when it concerns the propagation of a useful knowledge.” [02] At the time of this letter, a government student, Esteven Figueroa went on to become a noted engraver.
Details
1889
October
12
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal's Morga is magnificent - Rizal's annotations are scholarly - Rights of natives in French colonies. POST CARD

Details
1889
October
14
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Proposed dropping of Blumentritt from the Sociedad de Amigos del Pais POST CARD

Details
1889
October
20
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
The International Association of Philippinists in a latent state - Blumentritt, the good genie - If you are a friend of the country and this is your loyal friend, for what do you need the Spanish society Amigos del Pais? - You, friend of six million oppressed Malayans! - Do the prologue to my Annotations to Morga - An impartial critical judgment!
1.Felix Pardo de Tavera sculptor, brother of Dr. T. H. Pardo de Tavera, contemporary of Rizal. 2 Spanish society established in Manila. 3 Quioquiap (Pablo Feced), Wenceslao E. Retana, and Vicente Barrantes, commentator of the Teatro Tagalo, all three being critics of the Filipino people and things Philippine. 4 An expert cosmographer attached to the Magallanes expedition and served as an adviser. 5 The work of Pigafetta, Italian chronicler, who formed part of the Magallanes expedition, is Primo Viaggio in torno al globo terraqueo
Details
1889
October
23
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The friars and the Quioquiapistas lose their head.

Details
1889
October
25
Spain
Zaragosa
Reformer
Fernando Acevedo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
An admirer calls Rizal a “Model Filipino” – Notes his devotion to study and his exceptional talents – Will order a copy of his book Noli me tángere – Offers to attend to the sale of Rizal’s works. Rizal, the model Filipino. – A printing press – Business in prospect.
01] Graciano López Jaena, a Filipino reformer.
Details
1889
October
30
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Graciano López Jaena
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
López Jaena, candidate for deputy – Would like Rizal to persuade other Filipinos to help him – Antonia Rodríguez de Ureta’s article La Dinastía against Rizal.
[01] Republican political life = one who endorses a Republic over a Monarchy.
Details
1889
November
4
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Rizal requests Marcelo H. del Pilar to help a secret brother in Rd. L. M. holding the rank of Second Degree.
[01] One [usually of the clergy!] serving in a cathedral. [02] Miguel Morayta, a liberal Spaniard, the President of the Asociación Hispano-Filipina. [03] Manuel Becerra, former minister of the colonies who was responsible for some good reforms introduced in the Philippines. [04] Taga-ilog was Antonio Luna’s pseudonym.
Details
1889
November
10
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dirty attacks against Blumentritt - How to answer friends without making them suspects - Fear of an uprising organized by the friars. POST CARD

Details
1889
November
11
Germany
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal intends to expand and improve his essay entitled Filipinas dentro de cien años (The Philippines a Century Hence) as much as possible – Pardo de Tavera’s El cónscrito en la lengua Tagalog – Rizal’s Morga will come out soon.
[01] Rizal refers to his Morga edition, 1890.
Details
1889
November
16
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Antonio Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
An article in Pueblo Soberano of Barcelona calls Taga-Ilog (Antonio Luna) names – A. Luna goes to Barcelona to demand for reparation from its author – Ready to fight a duel – Tells Rizal about his love affairs.
[01] Mir Deas, a Spanish journalist.
Details
1889
November
18
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal tells Ponce on a post card that they have many enemies – They must stand united.

Details
1889
November
19
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Good prologue without mention of Quioquiap - "Too small for my Morga." -The Spaniards will scoff at our friendship - Distrust certain Spanish friends in Manila -- Withdraw from the fight if you can! - Write the history of the Philippines!
1 Xenophon (c. 444c. 355 B.C.), Athenian general and historian, on the "March of the Ten Thousand Greeks" and became the leader upon the retreat. He wrote the Anabasis, the story of the "March".
Details
1889
November
22
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Quioquiap ought not to be mentioned in the "Prologue" to the Annotations to Morga by Rizal -His comparison with the czars flatters the Kastilas - "We do not ask for fraternal love as charity." - Blumentritt wishes that the Spaniards embrace us like brothers - We aspire to educate our nation.

Details
1889
November
22
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Rizal sends Marcelo H. del Pilar an article on Blumentritt – La Solidaridad at Madrid is good, but it is poorly printed – Continuation of his essay “The Philippines a Century Hence.”
Refers to the "The Philippines a Century Hence”" [01] Rizal had already asked Filipino writers to use their true names rather than pseudonyms. Perhaps Rizal thought his true name might not produce the effect desired. [02] It was formerly published in Barcelona. [03] Rizal refers to his essay “The Philippines a Century Hence” published in four installments: 30 September 1889, 31 October 1889, 15 December 1889, 1 February 1890.
Details
1889
November
23
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Blumentritt approves of the changes made by Rizal in his "Prologue" -The rudeness of the Quioquiaps does not offend, but their duplicity does - Becerra's reforms - One column of Rizal's article is worth more than all the articles of Barrantes and company - A study of the Subanos of Mindanao.

Details
1889
November
24
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
In a serious book the name of Quioquiap should not be mentioned but in journalistic polemics, one should not be so generous - In politics generosity is a sterile thing - Balaguer's reforms will be useless if the Philippines is not granted parliamentary and constitutional liberty - The friars threaten to start a revolution.
1 Katzenjammer, a term used by students which means the physical and moral depression that is felt after a drinking spree. 2 Bartolome de las Casas was a native of Sevilla. He went to the Island of Sto. Domingo in 1502 where he became an encomendero. Ordained in 1510 he was admitted to the Dominican order. Famous for his passionate defense of the Indios against Spanish exploitation. He died at Madrid in July 1566.
Details
1889
November
26
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Antonio Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Luna writes Rizal about his encounter with Mir Deas – He spits on the face of Mir Deas on account of an insulting article – “Be it to death, to luck, whatever he likes, I will accept the duel.” -- It is necessary to give him a lesson if the name Filipino is to be maintained unsullied.

Details
1889
November
26
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Ponce writes Rizal the Filipino colony is willing to support Luna’s cause against Mir Deas.

Details
1889
November
28
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Hidalgo banished again to Tagbilaran -- Now the negotiations for his release should be undertaken -- The Superior of Calamba is under the command of the friars -- The Syndic's threats -- Hidalgo is accused of being responsible for the failure of the tenants to pay.

Details
1889
November
29
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal writes Ponce that all the Filipinos in Paris are ready to support Luna in every way in his dispute with Mir Deas – Ponce ought to go to Madrid because the newspaper, La Solidaridad, needs him there.

Details
1889
November
29
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal asks Blumentritt for the meaning of a phrase in Greek characters. POST CARD
1 See the Greek characters in the facsimile of a copy of Rizal's
Details
1889
December
2
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal presents two copies of Pardo de Taverás Sánscrito en la lengua tagalog to Ponce – Reiterates his suggestion that Ponce go to Madrid – Great demand for the Noli in Germany.

Details
1889
December
4
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal is pleased with Blumentritt's article entitled "La Previa Censura."
1 “La Previa Censura" published in La Solidaridad, 31 December 1889. 2 Distinguished geographer, professor at the University of Berlin, who professes fond admiration for Rizal.
Details
1889
December
5
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Material for La Solidaridad – Two articles of Blumentritt – Who is Ramiro Franco? -- If he is a Spaniard, his praise of Quioquiap is sincere; if he is a Filipino, it is a fine irony – Quioquiap’s style is hollow like his head, but audacious, very bold – A suggestion for the end of the year: That Solidaridad put out an issue publishing the works, articles, and thoughts of all the Filipinos, purely literary and instructive – Offer of the management of La Solidaridad to Llorente?
[01] General Valeriano Weyler, Governor General. Blumentritt’s letter is about the general’s intervention in the Calamba conflict. [02] A trivial sin. [03] Dominador Gómez [04] Quioquiap is Pablo Feced y Temprano, a Spaniard who resided in the Bikol region and wrote anti-Filipino articles.
Details
1889
December
10
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Aftermath of the Luna-Mir affair – Search of Ponce’s house on account of Mir’s information – Books without the printer’s name – It is possible that complications may arise.
[01] A play on the words Mir Deas. As written in the letter, it is a colloquialism for “excrement.”
Details
1889
December
10
Spain
Barelona
Reformer
Antonio Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The Luna-Mir affair is submitted to a court honor – Antonio Luna is grateful to all the Filipinos.
[01] Speaking metaphorically.
Details
1889
December
16
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The search of Ponce’s house discussed in the press in Madrid and Barcelona – It reaches the senate, the congress, and the council of ministers – Asks for Rizal’s advice – The decision of the court of honor buries Mir in the garbage can.

Details
1889
December
27
Spain
Barclona
Reformer
Antonio Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
In view of the persecution of his family, it is not strange that Luna wavers at times – Luna explains his actions – Eager to retain Rizal’s good opinion of him – Inquires about Miss Nelly Boustead.
[01] An infectious tropical disease transmitted by mosquitoes and characterized by severe pains in the joints and back, fever, and rash
Details
1889
December
28
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Baldomero Roxas
Rizal sends four copies of his edition of Morga to the Philippines – Will send more if the books are admitted without difficulty – Don Florentino Torres has poor impression of the Filipino students at Madrid – Rizal enjoins his fellow Filipinos to be virtuous and industrious.
[01] Indios Bravos.
Details
1889
December
29
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
New Year's Greetings.

Details
1889
December
31
Philippines

Family
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Attested deposition of Hidalgo's deportation -- The governor general, the rector of Santo Tomás, and two Dominicans are awaited at Calamba -- The object of the visit is to frighten the tenants so that they would pay -- Choleng, teacher -- Rizal's letters are intercepted -- False information in the administrative proceedings against Hildalgo

Details
1889
December
31
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Magnificent prologue to the Morga by Blumentritt – The book is a great blow to the enemies – Banquet in honor of the liberal press – Silent revolvers? -- Projected book on the lives of notable Filipinos – Ponce asks Rizal to send the data.
[01] Antonio de Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, annotated by Rizal with a prologue by Ferdinand Blumentritt. It was published in Parish in 1889.
Details
1890




Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Some subscriptions to La Solidaridad – What is happening to Ponce is no cause for worry to an Indio. Rizal, Saturday, [1890 ?] || To Mariano Ponce
01] Rizal may refer to the search of Ponce’s house by the Barcelona police following the denunciation of Mir Deas.
Details
1890




Family
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
You should support Governor Mompeón y Loret of Laguna, because so long as he is in the province, we need not fear anything -- Now there is more patriotism; a newspaper that writes against Filipino writers is abandoned by its Filipino subscribers --Lectura Popular, under the direction of Mr. Jan Atayde

Details
1890
January
2
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Guillermo Puatu y Constantino
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s membership fee in Associacíon Hispano-Filipina – End-of-the-year dinner with allusions to Rizal and Juan Luna as glories of the Philippines.
[01] At this time Rizal was actually in Paris. [02] The celebration of the visit of the Magi on the 6th of January.
Details
1890
January
2
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Greetings and Christmas gifts -Reply to a letter of Lacalle - Blumentritt's article on previous censorship - I must say that I like del Pilar better; he is serene and a politician ought to be serene before anything else - Meyer marvels at the "A phenomenal gifts of your mind.

Details
1890
January
3
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal encourages Ponce to write – Forward and fear nothing; you have a good style.

Details
1890
January
7
U K
London
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dr. Adolph B. Meyer
Paper and book ordered by Dr. A. B. Meyer cannot be found in Paris – Rizal appreciates his friendly advice.
[01] “Necessity knows no law.” [02] Dr. Reinhold Rost was vice president of the Association de Philippinsts, chief of the British India Office, and was an orientalist scholar.
Details
1890
January
12
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Guillermo Puatu y Constantino
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The funds for the subscription to El Día – Subsidy offered by Filipinos and turned down by the director.

Details
1890
January
20
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
To visit the libraries of Holland in search of books on the Philippines of the XVII century - La Previa Censura, Blumentritt's article in La Solidaridad, praised by all - How a foreigner can love the Filipinos! -"YOU have not written a novel," says Fr. Faura, "you have described the sad conditions of the country." -Prometheus tied to a rock by Jupiter in order to hand over to mortals the divine spark - God should not be used as a shield for abuses - "Why should I not combat this religion with all my strength when it is the primary cause of our sufferings and tears?"
1 Blumentritt's La Previa Censura. Previa censura is the examination and censorship of a writing before its printing.
Details
1890
January
24
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Wonderful letter of Rizal on the abuse of religion - Insolent letter of Retana - From the ox nothing can be expected but ox meat.
1Get thee hence, Satan!
Details
1890
January
25
Spain
Zaragosa
Reformer
Fernando Acevedo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal is surrounded by enthusiastic reformers: Luna and Ventura – Acevedo is an infantry lieutenant – In good standing in Zaragoza’s high society – He owns a printing press -- Sends Rizal a book from his press – He is appointed counsel for a Colonel to be tried by a military council composed of Brigadier Generals – There are no Filipinos in Zaragoza – A Filipino defends a Spaniard before the Council of War.
[01] Dengue is an infectious tropical disease transmitted by mosquitoes and characterized by severe pains in the joints and back, fever, and rash. [02] Juan Luna is a celebrated Filipino painter and reformer from Pampanga. [03] Valentin Ventura is a wealthy Filipino reformer from Pampanga.
Details
1890
January
31
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Manuel Arias y Rodríguez
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Directions for sending books to Manila – He is indignant at the deportation of Rizal’s brother-in-law Manuel T. Hidalgo – Obstructions to Becerra’s educational reforms – These are Peninsular Spaniards in favor of Philippine progress – He signs the post script with his Masonic name and rank.
[01] This refers to Dr. Antonio de Morga who served as Lieutenant Governor of the Philippines from 1594 to 1596. Rizal republished his Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, with his own annotations. [02] Manuel Becerra was then the minister of the colonies. He proscribed the compulsory teaching of the Spanish language in the Philippines. The Associación Hispano-Filipina of Madrid gave him a banquet in gratitude to his decree.
Details
1890
February

U K
London
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Vicente Barantes
Rizal replies to Barrantes' criticism of Noli me tángere -- He points out Barrantes' inconsistencies -- It is a strong and courageous reply.

Details
1890
February
2
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Jesuitical contrasts - Praise for the Noli by Fr. Sanchez - Book on ideal priests - For what? - To cloak wolves with the skin of sheep - To awaken my countrymen from their profound lethargy -Not by means of soft sounds but with blows and detonations - "Your mission is to baptize the heathen but mine is to make men worthy" - The Jesuits are not at the vanguard for not accepting the liberal principles of progress.

Details
1890
February
2
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Pedro Govantes
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Returning to Manila he cannot take charge of the case of Rizal’s brother-in-law, Manuel T. Hidalgo – Rizal’s petition to the minister of the colonies for an investigation is heeded.
[01] Benigno Quiroga Ballesteros, then Director General of Civil Administration, was friendly with the Filipinos.
Details
1890
February
3
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
An absurd attack of Barrantes against Rizal and Blumentritt - Barrantes accuses Blumentritt of being paid to attack the Spaniards.
1 A German saying which means "Pride will have a fall."
Details
1890
February
4
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
"Barrantes connects me with Bismarck's reptile fund" - He recognizes Rizal as foremost among the Filipinos.

Details
1890
February
5
France
Paris
Reformer
Valentin Ventura
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
He explains the disappointment of the Pardo de Tavera family at Rizal’s departure – Would like him to stay for a birthday dinner – Would Rizal want issues of La Solidaridad and El Día sent to him?
[01] There is a play on words in the original Spanish: “. . . para que no sa case V. o que la cazen que es lo mismo.” The word case is from the verb casar (to marry) and cazen from the verb cazar (to hunt, to chase).
Details
1890
February
9
France
Paris
Reformer
Juan Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The Filipino colony in Paris – Luna inquires about the second part of the Noli – Luna’s new painting – Cover page of La Ilustración showing a Filipina drawn by Luna.
[01] An illustrated magazine that is published in Manila.
Details
1890
February
10


Reformer
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Contribution of 70 percent to the International Association of Philippinistas - Rizal’s petition submitted to Minister Capdepon – Pedro Serrano Laktaw in disgrace – Rizal should send copies of his books to José Ma. Basa in Hong Kong, who can forward them to Manila. – Contribution of 70 pesetas to the International Association of the Philippines.
[01] It refers to the dismissal of Pedro Serrano Laktaw from his teaching post in Manila. [02] M. H. del Pilar suspects that Rizal is fleeing from some woman to avoid entanglements.
Details
1890
February
12
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Blumentritt is furious at Barrantes – Will write a series of articles – The friars want to conclude a peace pact with Filipino young men – A program for mutual rapprochement – What Rizal’s and del Pillar’s attitude would be.
[01] A play on Vicente Barrantes’ name. From the Spanish verb desbarra, meaning to err in what is said or done or to go beyond the limits, etc. He was a Spaniard who held high posts in the Philippine government and in whose writings strident anti-Filipino sentiments are evident.
Details
1890
February
12
Belgium
Brussels
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal likes Ponce’s articles – Panday Pira – Collected articles of Ponce – Low cost of living in Brussels – A city more beautiful than Barcelona – Why don’t more Filipinos come to Brussels?

Details
1890
February
16
Belgium
Brussels
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal cannot understand an article of Mir Deas – Biographies of notable Filipinos that ought to be published – There are many snakes in the ranks of the enemy – Ponce ought to go to Madrid to help in the editing of La Solidaridad.
[01] Father Vicente García’s defense of Rizal’s Noli me tángere. He was a Filipino clergyman. [02] Tomás Aréjola, who became a political figure in Camarines Sur. He served in the first Philippine Assembly of 1907. [03] Esteemed Tagalog poet (1788-1862). Author of Florante at Laura, a romance in Tagalog verse considered to be a classic and read religiously by Rizal. [04] Nicolás de la Cruz Bagay, famous Filipino engraver of the eighteenth century. He engraved Fr. Murillo Velarde’s map of the Philippines with admirable artistry. [05] Ruler of Tondo, an independent city-state when the Spaniards arrived at Maynila (Manila to the Spaniards). Rizal was anxious to make known to the world the notable figures in Philippine history.
Details
1890
February
17
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Blumentritt is very busy agitating for the overthrow of the present municipal government because of its nepotism - Great effect of Filipinas dentro de cien anos - The liberal group in Spain now looks at the Philippines with different eyes - Meyer, ordinarily cautious in his praises, speak;, with admiration of Rizal.

Details
1890
February
24
France
Paris
Reformer
Valentin Ventura
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Cost of living in Brussels is compared to that of Paris which is, after all, not so cheap – Ventura offers Rizal his apartment at Paris and money if he needs any.

Details
1890
February
25
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Manuel Arias y Rodríguez
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
He received the bill of landing of a box of copies of Rizal’s edition of Morga – Because of strict censorship he does not know when the books will be released and whether they will be allowed to circulate – Some copies of it are already circulating secretly – If difficulties arise, he will send the books to Hong Kong and they will be sent back to him in packages – His letters to Rizal will be posted at Madrid or Barcelona to prevent their confiscation – Rizal should keep their friendly relations a secret.
[01] That is Rizal’s annotated edition of Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas.
Details
1890
February
28
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Biographical data of Filipinos who are in Europe – Rizal is asked to send his – La Solidaridad is read in the Philippines – Weyler’s dismissal? -- Antagonism between Becerra and Weyler.
[01] Antonio Luna. [02] General Eulogio Despujol, who served from 1891 to 1893, succeeded Valeriano Weyler.
Details
1890
February
28
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Superb reply of Rizal to Barrantes - Every phrase is a sitzt on the face of Barrantes

Details
1890
March
5
Belgium
Brussels
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dr. Adolph B. Meyer
The use of hashish in the Philippines – The Filipinos drank arak, nipa-palm and coconut wine and chewed buyo before the coming of the Spaniards – Opium was introduced later.
[01] Hashish: Cannabis which is chewed or smoked in the East for its intoxicating effect.
Details
1890
March
6
Belgium
Brussels
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal does not like mutual praise - Barrantes' article on the Tagalog Theater is infested with errors - "I fear he may die of rage upon reading Blumentritt's criticism" - "It would be a great loss to my zoological garden" - said Rizal - "He is one of the best specimens of my reptiles and hippopotamuses."

Details
1890
March
10
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The hecatomb - Blumentritt confers the title of Diwata on Barrantes because Barrantes believes that diwata is a devil of the worst kind.

Details
1890
March
19
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Blumentritt finishes his reply to Barrantes - "I sleep little, but when sleeping I have pleasant dreams and I see the beautiful scenery of the Philippines."

Details
1890
March
31
Belgium
Brussels
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Mutual dreams - "When I am already there then you will come with your whole family and you will live with me" - "I shall devote myself to the sciences, I shall read and write history; I shall establish a school . . . and you will be its director" - "The cream of the youth of the country will come to us" - Blumentritt and Rizal will remain in the memory of the Filipino people.
1 Marcelo H. del Pilar (Plaridel) (1850-1896) who was hated by the friars for his anti-clerical writings.
Details
1890
April
1
Philippines
Manila
Family
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
No letters from Rizal -- False news about him from friar sources, among which that he had died of poisoning or that the friars had bribed him.

Details
1890
April
1
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Guillermo Puatu y Constantino
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Puatu asks Rizal to write an article for El Clamor, formerly La-Regencia – Another for El Día, organ of Romero Robledo – He prefers Rizal’s writings – “Don’t discuss the question of the representation in the Cortes.”
[01] Attributed by the Spaniards. [02] Edilberto de Leporel, nom de plume of Eduardo de Lete. [03] In Greek mythology, Morpheus was the God of dreams. Lete is asleep at this late hour.
Details
1890
April
3
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
"Our mutual dreams are very curious." - Analogy between Germans and Tagalogs, Germans and Igorots. - Philippine music resembles Slavic melodies. - A wish, probably unrealizable, to go to the Philippines. - Del Pilar's bad luck. - An article of Professor Kern about the origin of the Malayan race.
1 Requiescat in pace! (May he (or she) rest in peace
Details
1890
April
4
Belgium
Brussels
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Rizal would like del Pilar to sign his articles with his true name to prepare him to take his place – When Philippine representation is secured, Rizal will retire to devote himself to teaching – Our brains are our only redemption – Indifference of Filipinos – Who is Hector Hartfield? – We or they.
[01] The proofs of Rizal’s article Seamos Justos (Let Us Be Just) that appeared in La Solidaridad, 15 April 1890. [02] A cousin of Rizal’s mother. [03] An uncle of Rizal’s mother. [04] It was popularly believed that behind this case of arson were the friars who hated del Pilar for his anti-friar writings.
Details
1890
April
16
France
Paris
Reformer
Valentin Ventura
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Good aim of Rizal – Some news – Unable to get better price for Rizal’s furniture.

Details
1890
April
17
Belgium
Brussels
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal, historiographer and ethnographer -- Various works on oriental countries - In search of light on the Philippines and the Malayans - Studies Dutch - Orders Kern's new book - Investigating the origin of the Malayan race.

Details
1890
April
20
Philippines
Manila
Family
Concha
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Very pleasant and sad remembrances -- News about relatives and friends -- "… your return might be fatal… I believe it would be imprudence on your part to come at this time…"

Details
1890
May
3
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Antonio Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Duels between Filipinos and Spaniards – Result favorable to Filipinos – New technique in the use of the foil – What does Rizal think of Luna’s article, “The Teacher”? -- Luna asks Rizal for more complete biographical data.

Details
1890
May
5
France
Paris
Reformer
Antonio Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
New paintings of Luna – Exhibition of the “Independents” – Arrival of Felipe Roxas and the young painter Asuncion pensioned by Agustin Medel – The Filipinos of Madrid are gamblers.
[01] Agustina Medel was a wealthy Filipino woman of Manila. She was said to be the prototype of “Doña Victorina,” an ultra-Hispanized Filipino woman character in Rizal’s novel, Noli me tángere.
Details
1890
May
6
France
Paris
Reformer
Valentin Ventura
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
More on the gambling Filipinos in Madrid – Juan Luna wants to know if his brother, Antonio, is one of them – Ventura asks Rizal to write to those Filipinos and counsel them.

Details
1890
May
15
France
Paris
Reformer
Valentin Ventura
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Ventura receives from Rizal a little clay figure – He is not sure for whom it is intended. – Planning a trip to Germany with Rizal.

Details
1890
May
19
France
Paris
Reformer
Valentin Ventura
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Ventura is worried about Rizal’s silence – Has received no reply to his letters – Forwarding a letter and newspapers from Hong Kong.

Details
1890
May
26
France
Paris
Reformer
Antonio Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Publications which do not reach La Unión – Favors a contest of “Chinese” sharpshooters in Madrid – Luna’s brother in La Unión is anti-friar and a reformer.
[01] Agoo is a town in La Unión Province
Details
1890
May
26
Belgium
Brussels
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Recollections of Father Sanchez - Mandaya, Mandayak, and Dayaks - "I envy the Mandayas for their penal code" - Mandaya terms in Tagalog lexicon- The cup of rice in the marriage ceremony S of the Mandayas, Japanese, and ancient Tagalogs - Rizal will translate Kern's works - Of great effect if e Filipinos see our names together - Books on history and geography - Rizal's Annotations to Morga widely read and sought.

Details
1890
May
26
Belgium
Brussels
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Tagalog books written in the new orthography – Case vs. Ponce dropped by the Barcelona judge – The Agencia Editorial at Manila orders copies of the Noli.
[01] Miguel Morayta’s periodical was published in Barcelona.
Details
1890
May
27


Family
Paciano
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Two copies of the Rizal Edition of Morga -- The friars persecute the Rizal family -- Conflict with the Calamba Estate -- Proposed solution of the problem -- More lavish reception for the friar provincials than for the governor general -- Failure to capture bandits in the environs -- Epidemic of insanity -- Rizal's sister Narcisa, a victim -- Economic difficulties of the family.

Details
1890
May
28
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Translation of Kern's article - Origin of the words mandaya and dayak - "Those who persist in believing in the innate superiority of the white man should be hooked to a plow together with the carabao."
2Pagès, Voyage around the world which Rizal loaned
Details
1890
May
28
Belgium
Brussels
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Rizal writes del Pilar, “I’m not sending you articles so that our other fellow countrymen might write and be known.” – Ramiro Franco is one of the few who have dared to publicly express his ideas about the Noli – A vigorous novel by Franco – The Filipino does not come to Europe to gamble because there is already much gambling in the Philippines.
[01] Francisco Calvo Muñoz was a Spaniard who filled a high post in the Department of Finance in the Philippines. Upon his return to Spain he was elected a deputy in the Cortes. This liberal minded individual introduced a bill providing for Philippine representation in the Cortes.
Details
1890
May
30
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Angélica López
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Angélica López wants to go to a boarding school, colegio -- Would like Rizal to come home -- Paciano looks like an old man -- Bathing at Pansol.
(1) She means a boarding school for girls at Manila, popularly called colegio. (2) Mariano Herbosa, husband of Rizal's sister Luciá, who died of cholera and was buried in the place called Lecheria, the church authorities having refused him burial in the cemetery for being Rizal's brother-in-law.
Details
1890
May
30
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Trinidad Rizal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Birthday of Rizal's father -- Marriage of Choleng with Quintero

Details
1890
May
30
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Lucía Mercado
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Family News -- Abuses of the lay brothers

Details
1890
May
30
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Josefa Rizal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Josefa's trip to Lipa.
(1) Perhaps Neneng (Saturnino).
Details
1890
June
2
Philippines
Manila
Family
Saturnina
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal's brother-in-law is exiled again -- He was arrested at Christmas while he was eating with his family.

Details
1890
June
2
Philippines
Manila
Family
Narcisa Rizal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal resentful for not having received letters from his family -- Family news
LETTER HAS NO DATE BUT RLY GROUPS THIS WITH THE 1890 LETTERS
Details
1890
June
2
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
We now have a rule on which to base Tagalog orthography – Copies of the Noli are sent to the Agencia Editorial of Aries – More copies of Morga – Ponce’s son wants a picture of Rizal – Ramón Riego de Dios, a progressive compatriot, wishes to be counted among Rizal’s friends.

Details
1890
June
3
Philippines
Manila
Family
Antonio López
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
His two sons will enroll at the Jesuit school. Ateneo Municipal -- Case of Hacienda (Estate) of Calamba will be appealed to the Madrid Court.
Per the book @Cartas entre la familia de Jose Rizal" the date is June 2, 2011.
Details
1890
June
4
Belgium
Brussels
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal writes Ponce in Tagalog – Returning Ramón Riego de Dios’ greetings – Rizal is very friendly towards those who know how to love their native country – He esteems those of Kawit or Maragongdong – “May the flowers from the Philippines not wither in Spain” – May Riego de Dios excel Rizal – “Great is my hope that the rising generation will surpass that of the past and of the future.”
[01] José Roxas, the son of a wealthy Filipino, Pedro Roxas, died of measles. NOTE: The original letter is written partly in Tagalog and partly in Spanish.
Details
1890
June
6
Belgium
Brussels
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Soledad
You should be a model of virtues and good qualities "for the one who should teach should be better than the persons who need her learning." -- Advice to his young sisters.
(1) Rizal is alluding to his visit to the Philippines in 1887. His father restricted his movements on account of the threats against his life by his enemies the friars who hated him for his writings, especially Noli me tángere. (2) Rizal's fiancée, Leonor Rivera.
Details
1890
June
8
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Del Pilar wants Rizal to continue writing for La Solidaridad – Rizal’s collaboration is very much appreciated – Filipinos now abstain from gambling on account of Rizal’s advice – Villava Hervás will speak to the Republican [01] and Conservatives [02] to favor La Solidaridad’s bill – They are waiting for Rizal’s reply concerning the case of his exiled brother-in-law.
[01] Republicans: Those who promote a Republic over a Monarchy. [02] Conservatives: Those who wish to keep the Monarchy and the traditions and governmental positions of the past. [03] The citadel of the Moorish kings near Granada, Spain, built during the 13th and 14th centuries. [04] Manuel T. Hidalgo, a brother-in-law of Rizal, who had been deported without trial.
Details
1890
June
11
Belgium
Brussels
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Rizal is not seceding; he wishes only to rest and let other pens shine – Gloomy presentments and sad dreams – Earnestly wishes to finish the 2nd volume of the Noli and be ready for any eventuality – Will send articles – The duty of Filipino youth is to redeem the native land.

Details
1890
June
23
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Blumentritt is saddened by Rizal's departure for his native land: "Don't go to the Philippines but to Madrid where you can serve your country better." -He believes that Tagalog, Bi¬sayan, and Ilocano will absorb all the rest of the dialects-It is good for Spanish to be the official language to provide a common bond.

Details
1890
June
24
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Our unlucky star in Barcelona – José Roxas, a promising compatriot, died of measles, an untimely death – Jaena, abandoned by the one who promised to support him – He persists in going to Cuba – Panganiban in disgrace for an indiscretion.

Details
1890
June
28
Belgium
Brussels
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Distressing news from home -The parents and sisters of Rizal are victims of persecution -The fear of banishment eclipses reason in some of the persecuted - Progress in the study of French - Rizal, according to Chapusset, has much spirit and imagination - With a Buddhistic spirit he thinks differently from the Europeans - A Tseng-Ki-Tong in miniature.

Details
1890
June
29
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
"Rizal, under the protection of the highest powers" - For the purity of Tagalog Formation of Tagalog words and Tagalog lexicography can be enriched.
1 A Catholic biweekly in Spanish and Tagalog published at Manila.
Details
1890
June
30
Philippines
Manila
Family
Silvester Ubaldo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Papers on eviction raised by Hacienda de Calamba sent to Rizal.
(1) A familiar form of address for the father in Tagalog.
Details
1890
June
30
Philippines
Manila
Family
Aristeo Ubaldo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal's nephew is progressing in his studies.

Details
1890
July
2
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The sufferings of Rizal's family- Imagination is not an enemy of style - Not every style should be original - Only geniuses have originality - Rizal's book will be written in French Scheidnagel tries to sell a collection of ethnographic objects of the Philippines to the Dresden Museum.

Details
1890
July
3
Belgium
Brussels
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Antonio Luna
The handling of a weapon gives moral strength to the individual—Rizal’s doings in Brussels—Shooting exercises—Possible trip to Germany.
[01] A published article by Antonio Luna. [02] A native of Vigan, Ilocos Sur, lawyer, deputy of the Cortes, Madrid. He was a cousin of Rizal’s mother.
Details
1890
July
5
Belgium
Brussels
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Gift of two sculptures (the Scientia is broken)-Blumentritt does not look well in the picture-As if devoid of a kind heart-The spectacles are to blame-What happened to Becerra's promises? - Don't leave for tomorrow what can be done today!

Details
1890
July
9
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Appreciation for Rizal's artistic present - Favored by God whose brow the genius of the sublime has kissed - His home, a treasury of Filipino art - The Austrian press gave much publicity to the change of ministry in Spain - Against Canovas -Why did the queen choose him?

Details
1890
July
9
Belgium
Brussels
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Thinking of returning to the Philippines—Lopez Jaena also should go back to the Philippines instead of going to Cuba—Better return to the Philippines and be killed for his ideas.—“We die only once . . .”

Details
1890
July
11
France
Paris
Reformer
Valentin Ventura
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Ventura abandons his proposed trip with Rizal to Germany and Switzerland.

Details
1890
July
14
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Order for 25 Pesos from the sale of his book—Ponce is opposed to Rizal’s return to the Philippines—His life is in danger—It would be better if he should go to Spain, joining del Pilar and Ponce in Madrid—Serrano is in Europe to meet Rizal—Jaena granted free passage to Cuba by the Ministry of Colonies.

Details
1890
July
18
Belgium
Brussels
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Short of money—Desire to return to the Philippines even if that is rashness—“As we are not doing well on the path of prudence. I am going to look for another.”—It is better to die in the Philippines than to do badly in Europe.

Details
1890
July
18
Belgium
Brussels
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
The case against the Hacienda de Kalamba in the Supreme Court, Madrid.
[01] To authorize del Pilar, lawyer, to represent the Kalamba tenants at the Supreme Court. [02] Rizal alludes to the reason for del Pilar’s hurried departure from the Philippines-persecution by the friars.
Details
1890
July
20
Belgium
Brussels
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Continuation of the Indolencia de los Filipinos—Petition to the Supreme Court, Madrid, re. the case of the Hacienda de Kalamba.
[01] Paciano Mercado.
Details
1890
July
20
Belgium
Brussels
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal is determined to return to the native country though he may have "to pass over serpents and vipers." - "Those peoples would better be assimilated by a greater Malayan nation than by a Spanish one. ..."

Details
1890
July
24
France
Benzeval-Houlgate
Reformer
Juan Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
From Trouville to Benzeval—Juan Luna visits Madrid—The Filipino colony: all like before—Through the influence of Antonio Luna the Filipinos have taken up fencing—The fame of being brave and strong—A position for Antonio in La Solidaridad—Painting landscapes or catching shrimp and talanka—Biblioteca—Museo de Ultramar would like copies of Rizal’s works.
[01] Franciso de P. Vigil, a Spaniard who sympathized and fraternized with the Filipinos.
Details
1890
July
29
Belgium
Brussels
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal announces his trip to Madrid in a post card written in Tagalog.

Details
1890
August

Belgium
Brussels
Others
Petite Suzanne
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The following letter was published in the Philippines Herald, 29 December 1929 which is an English translation of the original letter in French which has been lost.

Details
1890
August
4
China
Hong Kong
Reformer
José Ma. Basa
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Letter to the Propaganda Committee [01] of Manila—Basa promises to send Rizal a pension of 100 pesos monthly—Opposes his return to Manila—Invites him to settle in Hong Kong and practice his profession—Basa complains about the irregular receipt of La Solidaridad.
[01] Filipino reformers in the Philippines had a Committee of Propaganda that managed to campaign for reforms.
Details
1890
August
11
Philippines
Manila
Family
Silvester Ubaldo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The power of attorney of Paciano and letters of the family -- The unhappy incident about the friar estate.

Details
1890
August
13
France
Houlgate
Reformer
Juan Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Even the son of Barrantes is against him—Requests the payment of his brother’s boardinghouse expenses—On Rizal’s projected return to the Philippines—And the second part of the celebrated Noli? Luna offers to illustrate it—Make of the Filipino youth a bunch of ready combatants for the honor of the race—How delightful is country life!

Details
1890
August
20
Spain
Madrid
Family
Madude
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Exiles, vile tricks, reprisals of the government -- With these persecutions Providence keeps awake the popular spirit -- They teach us to scorn dangers, to hate tyrannies.

Details
1890
August
24
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Is Paciano the noble, another victim of the bailiffs? - Newspaper campaign to denounce to the world the inhuman and barbaric violation of the most sacred human rights. - Blu¬mentritt recommends: "Ask the queen for protection against the abuses." - One more station on the via crucis which leads to redemption.
1 Free translation: "How long, Sir, must the insolent rascal with theology in his head and vileness in his heart mock what is holy!" 2 From Vergil's AEneid, IV, 625: "May some avenger arise from our ashes."
Details
1890
August
26
France
Benzeval Houlgate
Reformer
Juan Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Unpleasant incident because of wine—Antonio Luna has strong character and amour propre—Time him if he gets drunk again—Will Rizal please advise him as a good friend—T. H. Pardo de Tavera is also learning fencing.
[01] Men of Batangas Province—Batangueños—are noted for their bravery and readiness to use arms if they feel slighted.
Details
1890
September
6
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Saturnina
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Evicted from their homestead -- Paciano and other principal citizens of Calamba exiled to Mindoro -- Getting accustomed to the pains of separation for the sake of the country --Mishap in the burial of a corpse -- Avidity to read the second part of the Noli

Details
1890
September
6
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Academic idleness - The Elbe overflows - The environs of Leitmeritz look like a lake - Anti-Desenganos articles for La Solidaridad.

Details
1890
September
6
Philippines
Calamba
Others
Matias Belarmino
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Money order for two hundred pesos as a remembrance to Rizal of some of his fellow townsmen – What will be the fate of the appeal of the Calamba tenants to the authorities in Madrid?

Details
1890
September
29
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizall
Desengaños does not deserve a reply with the pen but with the rattan - The Spaniard is impressed only by valor and might - It is good for the Philippine cause that the friars have only intriguers at their services and not men of talent - God helps he who helps himself - The artistic sense of the Tagalogs - The statuette Triumph of Death over Life admired by two German artists.
(1) La indolencia de los filipinos (The Indolence of the Filipinos), Rizal's powerful essay was published in La Solidaridad in installments.
Details
1890
October
1
Belgium
Brussels
Others
Petite Suzanne
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mr. Baudrio came from Madrid, bringing a letter of Rizal – Rizal’s friends at Brussels are desirous of seeing him again with them.

Details
1890
October
7
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Prospectuses of German universities for the information of Filipino students. - The technical institutes of Graz, Dresden, and Mittweida - Mittweida is suitable for those who have not vet finished the secondary German course (Oberrealschule)

Details
1890
October
8
Philippines
Villa de Lipa
Reformer
Catalino Dimayuga
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Thanks to Lauro’s tutor—Advises his son to be a useful man—Uneasiness about scrofula—If a change of climate is necessary, go abroad and study beside Rizal—Dimayuga esteems Rizal—Order for 500 as the contribution of several Luna friends toward the campaign—La Solidaridad advances in Batangas.
[01] At that time Filipinos did not regard Spain as a foreign country, “Abroad” meant to them countries outside of Spain.
Details
1890
October
8
Philippines
Calamba
Others
Matias Belarmino
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s Tagalog translation of Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller’s William Tell – Dispossession of tenants is approved – Appeal of the tenants concerned – If the case reaches the Supreme Court, Mr. Marcelo H. del Pilar will defend the tenants – High rent discourages the farmers – Reprisal in the form of administrative proceedings against the appellants.
[01] Uldóg, Tagalog term for a lay brother. [02] Referring to Rizal’s parents. Narcisa, one of Rizal’s sisters.
Details
1890
October
12
France
Paris
Reformer
Juan Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Matriculation fee of Antonio—Our detractors believe that the best painters in the world are of their race.

Details
1890
October
15
Spain
Rañoa
Others
Pedro A. Paterno
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mr. Pedro A. Paterno is marrying Miss Lusa Piñeyo, an aristocratic Spanish lady – Cordial invitation to Rizal and other compatriots

Details
1890
October
15
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The sufferings of Rizal's family - Expose the injustice and 'harshness of the Government - Silvino Pellico's In mia prigione - Friars and Priests - Rizal's articles for Times and Globus - The intellectual unity of the human species - A circular of the Societé Indos-Chinoise - Equality and preference in the employment of the natives - The French will grant pagans rights which Spaniards deny Christians.

Details
1890
October
17
Philippines
Manila
Family
Narcisa Rizal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
A draft for 400 Pesos from relatives and fellow townsmen -- Even women send help to Rizal for his propaganda campaign -- It is not prudent for Rizal to return home -- He would be persecuted -- His positive value in Europe -- Pleasant news from home.

Details
1890
November
2
Spain
Pontevedra
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Guillermo Puatu y Constantino
Rizal, “titular head of the Filipinos”—Amicable settlement of the question between the Puatu family and M. H. del Pilar—Praises Rizal’s ability to amicably settle discord between compatriots.

Details
1890
November
8
France
Paris
Reformer
Juan Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Concerning “A Reply to I. de los Reyes”—Isabelo made a mistake in refuting Anotaciones a la Historia de Morga—Luna dedicates to Rizal a sketch of the death of Magellan—A more appropriate title would be “Victory of Lapulapu and Flight of the Spaniards.”
[01] Isabelo de los Reyes (July 7, 1864-October 10, 1938) was to become a journalist, politician, labor leader, and one of the founders of the Philippine Independent Church.
Details
1890
November
9
France
Paris
Reformer
Raimundo de Perio
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
I uphold and will uphold our political ideas, but without money I will have to ask favors from persons who perhaps entertain opposite ideas.

Details
1890
November
10
Philippines
Manila
Family
Concha
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Pepito Leyba is now officer in the upper class of school -- Soledad Rizal is married -- Advice on the education of children

Details
1890




Reformer
Eduardo Lete
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
A savage act of a Spaniard angers Lete—A fellow countrywoman was the victim—An attorney and prosecutor should be appointed to file a case against the offender.
NHI dates this letter as (1890?)
Details
1890
December

Spain
Gijon
Reformer
Esteban Villanueva
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dinner of the Associación Hispano-Filipina in honor of Becerra—The situation of the country will be taken up—Success and greetings.

Details
1890
December
2
Spain
Gijon
Reformer
Esteban Villanueva
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Christmas Greetings

Details
1890
December
16
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The 167 pictures of Blumentritt - The return of the shackels -The History o f Ilocos by I. de los Reyes is anti-Spanish propaganda - The Quioquiaps will utilize I. de los Reyes' refutation as an instrument to divide the Filipinos into Guelphs and Ghibelines - The scientific world looks upon Rizal as a "man of gigantic spiritual grandeur".
3The third party rejoices at the quarrel of the two
Details
1890
December
17
France
Paris
Reformer
Juan Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
A draft for the boarding house of Antonio Luna

Details
1890
December
21
France
Paris
Reformer
Juan Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Blumentritt’s pictures are well received—Rizal’s dispute with Retana—Did not go beyond rectification—Retana talks despairingly of Luna’s paintings—Will Rizal please counsel his brother Antonio? -- Students ought to be inspired by Rizal’s example.

Details
1890
December
22
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
A fraternal gift of the Filipinos to Blumentritt: A draft on a London bank and a gold pen - An article by Rizal for Globus and another on the civilization of the Filipinos at the time of the conquest - Vivisection of Esbozos y Pinceladas of Quioquiap - Universal suffrage is dangerous in a country where the masses are uneducated - Around the Christmas tree.

Details
1891




Reformer
Eduardo Lete
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Lete appreciates Rizal’s congratulations – He is on the staff of La Reforma­ – Continues his patriotic labors – The task is common, the goal only one – “May fortune guide us!
NHI groups this letter with the April (1891?) letters but body of letter shows no date. NOTE: Sic. The wording of the first three paragraphs above in the third person. The last three paragraphs are in the first person.—rly.
Details
1891
January
7
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Father Vicente García
Defense of the truth, humanity, and justice is undeserved if it’s to be thanked for—We need the experience and the applause of the old—Let us turn our eyes towards our elders—Leave us our thoughts and the fruits of your experience in writing—Many have died without bequeathing to us anything more than the fame of their name—There’s individual progress, but not national—A tear and a just word when one succumbs—“I’ve suffered harsh death for saving men. What have you done for your brothers and sisters?”

Details
1891
January
11
Philippines
Kalamba
Reformer
Luis Habaña
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mr. Filipe Buencamino attorney of the defendants in the Hacienda de Kalamba case—Displays his talent in the defense of the poor tenants—Mr. Doroteo Cortes and those of Sta. Cruz [01] and Pansanjan are helping him—The dispossessed of Kalamba are not afraid of any adverse judicial action—They will fight for their rights until the end—“We feel encouraged whenever we receive a letter of Rizal and read the name of Blumentritt.”
[01] Capital town of the province of Laguna. It is also the name of one of the districts in the City of Manial. [02] Filipino lawyer who used to take the side of the friars but who seemed to have changed his attitude.
Details
1891
January
14
Philippines
Calamba
Reformer
Nicasio Eigasani
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The Hacienda de Kalamba case—Copy of the brief presented to the Supreme Tribunal—Long account of the ejection of the tenants—Cruelties and abuses—Scenes of desolation—Payment of rent as the only remedy—They spread the information that Borromeo has been won by the friars—Rizal, defeated, was not allowed to appeal to the Supreme Court—Appointment of friar partisans to discourage the people and compel payment—Another 13 defendants—the same sword hangs over those of Sta. Cruz—Rizal’s father ejected from his house for questioning the payment of urban taxes.
Letter is dated January 14, 1891 but NHI dates as January 11. Need to check the original letter. The Epistolario dates this as 14 January according to L. Spittale.
Details
1891
January
21
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
José Ma. Basa
Conspiracy against Rizal—del Pilar, the tool—The Propaganda is against Rizal’s return—Project of establishing a school in Hong Kong with Rizal as the director—To teach languages, science, and the arts—Kunanan will be the manager and will leave for Hong Kong to choose a site and an adequate building.
[01] Mariano Kunanan (Cunanan) was a wealthy Pampango capitalist who promised 40,000 pesos to start the school. Rizal drafted the regulations of the proposed school.
Details
1891
January
27
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Eduardo Lete
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
In order to dispel doubts and bitterness – Interest in their removal – Lete justifies himself – Meanness – Spirit of rivalry and envy? – Concerning the appointment of “one who would direct our work and our life” – Lete did not vote for Rizal to maintain his prestige – He entrusts himself to the good judgment of Rizal – Has no intention of overthrowing him – Nor did he ridicule his laudable project – Lete’s act of vindication.

Details
1891
February
4
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Llorente is leaving – Plaridel elected Responsible [1] – Waiting for a Rizalian article – “Everything the same as when you were here” – Souvenir of Chambery – Everybody is asking for Rizal.
[1] The title given to the director of the Filipino colony at Madrid. [2] José Alejandrino was then studying chemical and industrial matters. Later he became a general in the Philippine Revolution of 1896 and senator of the Philippines under the Commonwealth (1935-1946).
Details
1891
February
7
Philippines
Kalamba
Reformer
Felipe Buencamino
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Attorney of the defendants – Convinced of the justice of the case – Interesting account of the case – The technique of the defense – Incidents which excited the authorities – Most lamentable condition of the property of the Rizal family – The Governor offers his help –Suspension of judgment for six months – For a conciliatory formula – Bases of a settlement – Power of attorney given to Mr. Yriarte.
[1] A principal was a Filipino who had held some public office under the Spanish regime. [2] Balangay in Tagalog, barangay to the Spaniards was a group of families, an ancient social unit preserved during the Spanish regime. [3] Then Alcalde Mayor (Governor) of Laguna Province.
Details
1891
February
9
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Tomás Aréjola
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s moral influence on the Filipinos – Regrets for Rizal’s absence from Madrid – The path of glory means sacrifices – They support Rizal’s ideas – Suggests that Rizal marry the beautiful Adelina Boustead and live in Europe.
(01) Galicano Apacible, Rizal’s cousin. (02) M. H. del Pilar’s pet name. (03) Rizal was then sojourning at Biarritz. The Boustead family was also there. (04) Rizal’s fiancée, Leonor Rivera, had broken her engagement to Rizal to marry an English engineer, Charles H. Kipping.
Details
1891
February
11
France
Biarritz
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal cannot send articles for the present – Will write again if necessary – He hopes he may no longer be indispensable – He believes in their ability to handle all the work that has to be done – at Biarritz his health is improving.
(01) Mamang is a Tagalog term of address for men. Mama means man; ng is added for the sake of euphony. Piro is a common Tagalog pet name for Pedro. Rizal refers to Pedro Serriano Laktaw.
Details
1891
February
15
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizall
After all the misfortunes suffered by Rizal now his beloved abandons him - How it hurts his heart - But Rizal is like those heroes who conquer the pain of love's wounds - "You have a brave heart and a more noble woman looks at you lovingly : Your Native Land" - The Philippines is like one of the enchanted princesses of German folklore - An album of ethnographic objects from Northern Luzon - Igorot pipes which prove the existence of ancient relations with Japan - Another review of the Quioquiaps.
(1) "Look for the woman."
Details
1891
March
10
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Narcisa Rizal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
At last the eviction -- Unfortunate fellow townsmen of Rizal thrown out to the street -- Deprived of their lands, homes, farm animals, and crops of sugar, rice, and all the other fruits of their labor -- More than 300 families, almost the whole town, punished -- Even boys and girls of 12 must buy cedulas at 4 reales -- A shepherd hit by a civil guard on the mouth with the butt of the gun loses two teeth -- Calamba is dying: Picture of hunger and death -- The persecuted clamor for justice before the Supreme Court
(1) A Spanish certificate showing evidence of citizenship in a local area. (2) Calesas are two-wheeled passenger vehicles, generally driven by horses.
Details
1891
March
28
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal's silence - A German (strong) reply of Blumentritt to the pamphlet The Philippines, a Fundamental Problem believed to be by Quioquiap-Whole phrases from his satirical letters on the Noli - He writes anonymously fearing that some Filipino rattan cane may lash him on the back - His motto: "Stick for the Filipinos and gold for the Castilas" (Spaniards) -¬A good idea to render useless the plan of the .Quioquiaps.

Details
1891
March
29
France
Biarritz
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
"When I think of my family, how I suffer! Had I less faith in God Were I at the beginning of my life, I would do the same thing I have done, because I ought to do it." - "God could ask me: Why did I not combat the evil and injustice when I saw them?" - "When I think of my family suffering on my account . . . and of the dearly beloved who left me ... my heart bleeds!"
1 He refers to El Filibusterismo, the continuation of his, Noli me tangere, which was printed at Gand, Belgium, in September -1891.
Details
1891
April

France
Biarritz
Others
Nellie Boustead
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Miss Boustead would like Rizal to embrace Protestantism before agreeing to marry him.
[01] The original is not available. This is an English translation. [02] By which she means Protestantism. She would like Rizal to embrace Protestantism before marrying him. Rizal refused to do so. [03] The Filipino painter Felix Resurrección Hidalgo.
Details
1891
April

France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Eduardo Lete
Rizal sends Lete his visiting card with felicitations on his patriotic articles.

Details
1891
April
1
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal is sad, will find-.consolation in Paris - Without details on El Filibusterismo - It's regrettable that we have to fight not with gentlemen but with bandits and groups of Quioquiaps and Desenganos - If some of the articles in La Solidaridad were translated into Philippine languages! - Plans for our campaign.

Details
1891
April
2
France
Biarritz
Others
Edward Boustead
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Thanks Rizal for news of friends in Paris – Weather in Biarritz is magnificent – Gives directions for locating a large shop with oriental objects – Is Felipe Engores a merchant or agent? -- Isabel’s eyes are well and she is grateful to Rizal.
[01] Grocery.
Details
1891
April
4
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
José Ma. Basa
Rizal determined to join the patriot Basa in Hong Kong – He is detained in Paris for lack of traveling expenses – If Basa would be so good as to advance him the passage money – He plans to practice ophthalmology there and earn his living through it.

Details
1891
April
6
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Juan Zulueta
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Proposal made to the Propaganda Movement to place La Solidaridad under the direction of the Filipino colony – Conciliatory solution without hurting anyone – Save unity at any cost – A solution that will not slight Dimas Alang (01) nor offend Brother Carmelo (02) – Avoid a schism.
(01) Dimas Alang is a Rizal nom de plume. (02) Carmelo: Anagram of Marcelo (Marcelo H. del Pilar). (03) Hermandad de San Patricio. (04) Juan Zulueta.
Details
1891
April
11
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Antonio Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s opinion encourages Antonio Luna – His book Impressiones is already published – Who will write the prologue? Pi y Margall? Morayta? -- “I don’t expect great success” – “I would be satisfied if I get one-fifth of that of your Noli” – “How is the second part?” – Between Nelly and Luna only pure friendship exists – She would bring happiness to Rizal – Studying chemical biology.

Details
1891
April
19
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Antonio Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Luna explains his biography of Rizal – It is incomplete – He intends to enlarge it – He refuses to grant Rizal’s request to withdraw it.

Details
1891
April
19
Belgium
Brussels
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
José Ma. Basa
Rizal decided to leave for Hong Kong as soon as he receives Basa’s letter – Nothing now detains him in Europe.
(01) At this time Rizal was quite depressed on account of the marriage of his fiancée, Leonor Rivera, to another man (Mr. Charles H. Kipping, an English engineer of the Manila Railroad) and of his disappointment with the Filipinos at Madrid that he wanted to leave Europe at once, even borrowing money from his friend, Mr. Basa.
Details
1891
April
22
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Tomás Aréjola
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
López Jaena en route to the Philippines – Decided to face grave perils in the Philippines – “Willing to fight if need be, to die if necessary” – Because of his popularity they may respect him – If not, “the blood of the victims will penetrate the tomb of the tyrants” – Rizal’s return would displease the whole colony – It would be “an imprudence, a temerity.”

Details
1891
April
23
Belgium
Brusslels
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Everything has been sacrificed, nothing remains but ruins! - My fiancee is marrying an Englishman, an engineer of the railroad - The first blow of the railroad is for me - My whole family is courageously united and faithful to the Filipino party! - And now they use the name Rizal, the oriflamme of battle - Gold pen with diamonds, gift of the Pampangos to Blumentritt.

Details
1891
April
24
France
Biarritz
Others
Nellie Boustead
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Fragment of a letter of Miss Boustead to Rizal – She talks about her religion – Wishes Rizal a happy trip home.
[01] Isabel, her aunt, mentioned in Mr. E. Boustead’s letter to Rizal. See No. 68, previous. NOTE: The translator was furnished a typewritten copy of this letter in English which appeared in the Philippines Herald. 29 December 1929, p. 3. She has not seen the original.
Details
1891
April
26
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizall
On his unhappy love - "If she can give up Rizal, she is not of the stature of Rizal's heart" - Affectionate letter of Paciano - Interesting book which furnishes weapons to the opponents of Frailocracia(1) - Against Rizal's return to the Philippines - "The native land needs your intelligence and your freedom - Better times are approaching for the Philippines - The struggles of La Solidaridad are not useless - Study of the scientific basis of the Malayan language - The gold pen has not arrived.
(1) That is, the rule of the friars. (2) The lady is fickle.
Details
1891
May
1
Belgium
Brussels
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
To Deodate Arellaño
Draft for 100 of the Propaganda Movement for January and February – Rizal refuses the pension in order to go home and practice his profession – Philippines, Hong Kong, or Japan – Europe seems to him a place of exile – That the Propaganda Movement defray the expenses of a student with his $50 pension – When he becomes independent he will again fight with more vigor.
(01) Deodato Arellaño. A. L. Lorena is one of the pseudonyms of Arellaño. (Note of the Editor of the Epistolario). (02) A pseudonym of José Rizal.
Details
1891
May
1
Belgium
Brussels
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
José Ma. Basa
Letter for the Propaganda Movement – Rizal’s insistence on joining Basa at Hong Kong as soon as possible or return soon to Manila – Requesting earnestly for passage-money.

Details
1891
May
11
France
Biarritz
Others
Nellie Boustead
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
She advises Rizal not to ask her parents for her hand – Her mother’s opposition

Details
1891
May
13
France
Paris
Reformer
Juan Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The bagoong (01) ordered by Luna – Kock’s lymph – Exhibiting paintings at Champ de Mars – Les Ignorés, painting of the humble and the disinherited – Inspiration of socialist themes – To combat crude materialism, the exploitation of the poor, the struggle between the rich and the poor – Reading Le Socialismo Contemporain – Launa’s impressions of an iron foundry.

Details
1891
May
30
Belgium
Brussels
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
José Ma. Basa
El Filibusterismo is finished and ready to go to press – It will be ready within two months if there is money – More profound and perfect and written with more ardor than the Noli – Has not received a single word from Basa for two months – Money for the printing of the work.
(01) The title is El Filibusterismo, Rizal’s second novel.
Details
1891
June
13
Belgium
Brussels
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
José Ma. Basa
Basa sends Rizal passage-money – Orders second part of the Noli – If the book is not published in Europe, Rizal will send it to him – Bigger than the Noli – If something happens to him, Luna will take care of its publication.

Details
1891
June
20
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizall
We go through the Philippines with hands joined - Colonel von Koller read the Noli twice - El Filibusterismo, a thunderbolt that will knock down the enemies - Lippert's work as a souvenir of their mountains - Blumentritt is distressed that Rizal has not abandoned his plan to return to the Philippines - Loleng finds Rizal's photo - The gold pen is now in Europe.

Details
1891
June
21
Belgium
Brussels
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
It is an honor for Quioquiap to be mentioned in the Noli-The history of the friars.

Details
1891
July
5
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
A request of Lopez Jaena from Hong Kong- Blumentritt wants to prevent Rizal's departure-Jaena was in Manila only four days - If he had stayed longer, he would have been thrown into Bilibid or cast away on the Mariana Islands - Blumentritt's letter for Jaena.

Details
1891
July
9
Belgium
Ghent
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
José Ma. Basa
Rizal receives the passage-money from Basa – Publishes El Filibusterismo, the second part of his Noli, before leaving Europe – Three months without receiving even a cent – To print his work, Rizal pawned his jewels – Disheartened – Forsaken by those who have promised to finance the publication of his book – Sends Basa age-proofs but asks him to burn them – The friars may resent the book – He sends also books and personal effects to Hong Kong.

Details
1891
July
16
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal's photo praised - Two photos of Loleng, one for Rizal and the other for Maximo Viola - Sun and warmth, Blumentritt's happiness - The Compania General de Tabacos de Filipinas and the, Austrian Government - An article for La Solidaridad exposing the ignorance of Fabie.

Details
1891
July
29
Belgium
Ghent
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Eduardo Lete
Reports on agricultural colonies at Hoogstraten and Bruges – Rizal obtained the information from the ministry of justice at Brussels.

Details
1891
August
4
Belgium
Gand
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal is very busy - Congratulations on the article - "Mr. Fabie and Historical Truth."

Details
1891
August
6
Belgium
Ghent
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
José Ma. Basa
Rizal’s books valued at 600 pesos are sent to Basa – Macao postage stamps for Blumentritt, “the one who works most for the Philippines” – Printing of El Filibusterismo advances – “But, if I do not get money, I will have to suspend it. – “With 2,500 francs a good printing press can be put up and the two of us can exploit it.”

Details
1891
August
7
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The order for Graciano will be carried out – Also what refers to the prize for Luna – The voice of Manila is “reconciliation” – There is really no resentment between Rizal and del Pilar – Appreciating Rizal’s congratulations to La Solidaridad – Invites Rizal to write for it again – would defeat friars’ intrigue in the Philippines.
(01) Antonio Luna’s pseudonym.
Details
1891
August
8
France
Paris
Reformer
Juan Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Thanks for the prize for his brother Antonio – Philippine biographies for a contest for Igorrote (01) writers – The lone contestant – Rizal did not allow the inclusion of his biography – Juan Luna also wants his to be dropped – The biographies in La Solidaridad are counter-productive – Juan Luna, member of La Société Nationale de Beaux-Arts – The stay of Filipino students in Madrid should not be unnecessarily prolonged – Our artists – M. Zaragoza, director of the Escuela de Pintura.
(01) Igorot, meaning Filipino. It is the name of a cultural minority living in the mountains of northern Luzon. (02) Telesforo Sucgang, Filipino painter, whose best known work is an oil portrait of Rizal which, at the time of this writing (1961), is the property of Ms. Paz Zamora Mascuñana, daughter of Dr. Felipe Zamora, a contemporary of Rizal.
Details
1891
August
12
Belgium
Ghent
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Resentments and disagreements? – It is to talk of the non-existent – Reasons why Rizal stopped writing for La Solidaridad – “I fight for the nation, the Philippines” – Alejandrino and Evangelista are studying – On Sunday they eat together in Philippine style and talk about Philippine problems.
(01) The director of the Biblioteca-Museo de Ultramar. Se Juan Luna’s letter, No. 220. (02) Edilberto Evangelista (1862-1897) was born in Santa Cruz, Manila; studied at San Juan de Letran College and Santo Tomás University, then at the University of Ghent, graduating in 1895 as civil engineer. Returning to Manila in September 1896 he was arrested and detained for several days on account of copies of Noli me tángere and El Filibusterismo found in his luggage. Immediately after his release he enlisted in the revolutionary army, THE KATIPUNAN. Assigned to the engineering corps as director-general, he was the builder of remarkable fortifications in Cavite and Muntinglupa. He died in action in the Battle of Zapote Bridge, 17 February 1897.
Details
1891
August
14
Europe

Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Juan Zulueta
Concerning the chief of the Filipino colony in Madrid and the administration of La Solidaridad – Rizal explains his attitude from a lofty level – Everything is settled with his retirement from the colony – His admirable spirit of sacrifice – His patriotic moral discipline – His abnegation ad disinterestedness tested – He submits to the will of the Propaganda Committee of Manila.
(01) Juan Zulueta was the secretary of the Propaganda Committee at Manila.
Details
1891
August
19
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Galicano Apácible
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Greatness is in direct proportion to the number of enemies - The pin has not been lost - Apacible will return also and wants to be Rizal's fellow passenger - Filipinos who are leaving Madrid - Note: There are blanks in this letter. These were caused by damages to the letter—rly Greatness is in direct proportion to the number of enemies – The pin has not been lost – Apácible will return also and wants to be Rizal’s fellow passenger – Filipinos who are leaving Madrid.
(01) A Philippine cart without wheels, generally drawn by carabao.
Details
1891
August
21
France
Paris
Reformer
Juan Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
He will do the drawings for the second edition of Noli – More interesting with illustrations that will appeal to the masses – They will meet in Paris before Rizal’s trip – About the power of attorney given to Govantes.

Details
1891
August
23
France
Gand
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Pleasant recollections of Father Leoncio López. - Anecdotes - He is the Father Florentino of the Noli - His moral physiognomy traced by Rizal.
(1) That is, secretly from his parents.
Details
1891
August
24
Belgium
Ghent
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Rizal informs Ponce of what he wrote the Propaganda Committee – He is mortified by what is imputed to him by it.
(01) Marcelo H. del Pilar.
Details
1891
August
26
Belgium
Ghent
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
José Ma. Basa
Rizal will leave for Hong Kong with his work already printed – How to send copies of it to Manila.
(01) El Filibusterismo.
Details
1891
August
26
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Graciano López Jaena
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
On the alleged conflict between Selo and Rizal – The members of the Hermanda de San Patricio regret the incident – Selo’s letter which twists the facts – López Jaena and Moisés Salvador defend Rizal – Meeting of Basilio Teodoro and Jaena – “Nothing from Spain” – To obtain redemption – Proposal to Rizal – Basa’s explanations – Jaena with 40 Peso allowance – His impressions of the Propaganda Committee – Order for his arrest – Jaena in favor of the publication of a revolutionary newspaper , El Baguio – Only through revolution – He is studying English.
[01] Tao in this sentence means man. It is a Tagalog term that also means people. [02] Doroteo Cortes, chairman of the Propaganda Committee. [03] Outside of Spain. He was writing from Barcelona
Details
1891
September
12
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Antonio Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Regrettable situation of the staff writers of La Solidaridad – “Man’s exploitation of man”—Luna is indignant. – Reports many injustices and anomalies – There’s money but there’s none – On the other hand, a lot of waste, useless trips, no initiative, dead campaign – Complaints sent to the Propaganda through Rizal against the administrators of the newspapers.
01 A Moorish festival with dancing and music. 02 Cristianos pronounced clistianos by the ordinary Chinese. 03. Sweet, light rolls a common delicacy in Spanish speaking countries.
Details
1891
September
18
Belgium
Ghent
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
José Ma. Basa
Going to Hong Kong with 800 copies of Filibusterismo as soon as he receives money – Advanced copies for Basa and Sixto López – They must not make noise so that the books’ entry in Manila will not be prohibited – Rizal declines the offer of the Propaganda of a monthly pension of 100 pesos. It comes so irregularly, that is to say, it does not come at all. “I prefer to work and live on my own.”
01 A wealthy patriot from Balayan, Batangas.
Details
1891
September
22
Belgium
Ghent
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
El Filibusterismo of parallel tendency to La Solidaridad – Rizal indifferent to any criticism of his work – Notice from Manila to send Luna the prize of 50, transmitted by Rizal to del Pilar – Rizal retires completely from politics – In Manila or Hong Kong he will write.

Details
1891
September
22
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
of El Filibusterismo - Rizal will write a third novel - In it politics will not occupy much space - Ethics will play a principal role - There will be only two Spaniards in it: The curate and the lieutenant of the civil guard.

Details
1891
September
23
France
Paris
Reformer
Juan Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The Fili touches the Filipino wounds of his first novel – Exposing the social cancer – Rizal creator of The Philippine novel – His writings should be sent to the Philippines – But he himself must remain in Europe for the good of the native land – The friars will remove treacherously a man with “noble and lofty ideas.”

Details
1891
September
23
France
Paris
Reformer
Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Sincere congratulations – When is the third part coming? – Barrantes may again say that the work is printed in Germany.

Details
1891
September
26
France
Paris
Reformer
Valentin Ventura
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Offers Rizal funds – El Filibusterismo is perfect, vigorous, poetic, and with feeling – He likes Isgani best – Basilio is not bad – He can identify Juanito Paláez and Ben-Zayb – Grateful for the rough draft inscribed to him.

Details
1891
September
30
France
Paris
Reformer
Juan Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
A postal card from Antonio Luna informed Rizal that he has received the fifty prize from del Pilar – Acknowledge receipt of complimentary copies of Rizal’s works – sends paintings, image of the Virgin of Lourdes, fans, and photographs to Manila through Rizal.

Details
1891
October

Europe

Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Unknown
Fragment of a letter in Tagalog signed “Laong Laan,” a Rizal pseudonym – written in metaphorical language: “It is true that the times are bad, the ground is not fertile, there are many locusts, frequent typhoons, and the wind blows away the seeds; but with devoted care there will always be found there some fish, as D. M. says” – Expresses loss of confidence in the campaign for reforms in Europe – The fight should be in the Philippines.

Details
1891
October
2
France
Paris
Reformer
Juan Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Luna asks Rizal to do some errands for him.

Details
1891
October
2
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Filipino Colony of Barcelona
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The Filipino colony of Barcelona congratulates Rizal on his novel, El Filibusterismo – A gem of Spanish literature – Decalogue of political redemption and human dignity — If your precepts are followed, they will make an enslaved people the master of its destinies.
01. Words are missing.
Details
1891
October
2
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Graciano López Jaena
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
A critical appraisal of El Filibusterismo superior to the Noli. Exquisite style, sublime thoughts. At the beginning, “light, alluring hopes; at the end shadows of doubt and despair” – Simoun ought to have succumbed like a hero, shot with bullets, or, like Porthos or Bernardo el Carpio – Another work which soles the problems and hastens the day of our redemption – Those of the Madrid Colony do not understand one another – Luna at the point of rebelling against del Pilar – El Baguio is not yet published.
01. Alexander Dumas and Eugene Sué were both French novelists. One of Dumas’ works was The Count of Monte Cristo. Sué’s lengthy novel, Mysteries of Paris [The entire work in the original French and parts in an English translation may be had by clicking here (NOTE: search for Sue, Eugène) -- rly] was widely read by educated Filipinos.
Details
1891
October
3
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
José Ma. Basa
En route to Hong Kong with 600 copies of El Filibusterismo – Will practice his profession and earn a small capital. – Hopes to be financially independent.

Details
1891
October
7
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
He will respect any criticism of his work El Filibusterismo – Reasons why Rizal stopped writing for La Solidaridad – It is a private enterprise – It has published ideas contrary to Rizal’s – He hopes La Solidaridad will lie under del Pilar’s leadership – He regrets the attitude of some Filipinos at Madrid toward him.

Details
1891
October
9
France
Paris
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
The gold pen is still at Madrid - Rizal will not write any more for La Solidaridad - What Blumentritt and Rizal are doing, Blumentritt can do alone - Discords among brothers - "I have suggested many projects and they engaged in a secret war against me. . . ." - He is withdrawing to leave - the field free - But he will continue in the breach and devote his strength to the native country.

Details
1891
October
11
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s letters sent to the Propaganda – Ponce informed Pillar of its contents – Ponce has answered Rizal’s letter to him – El Filibusterismo, an excellent book, like all the products of Rizal’s brilliant pen – “It will wound the enemy deeply” – “May you reach safely our unfortunate country. . . . .”

Details
1891
October
13
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Rizal knows about del Pilar’s ambition to outshine him and knock him down so that he would become the sole leader – But he is not resentful – He withdraws to leave the ground free for del Pilar – He considers this decision a blessing to him – His esteem for del Pilar is undimmed – He agrees with del Pilar’s opinion that El Filibusterismo is inferior as a novel to Noli me tángere.
01. With a grain of salt.
Details
1891
October
15
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Graciano López Jaena
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The Filipinos at Barcelona wish Rizal a “Happy trip!” – Both Rizal and López Jaena are victims of their envious compatriots – “Let us join together to knock down those who exploit patriotism for their own benefit” – Recommends to Rizal the Asociación Filipina at Hong Kong, founded by him – Luna has separated from La Solidaridad – Jaena, candidate for deputy of a district in Cataluña – The Philippines must win with blood her rights as well as her independence.

Details
1891
October
18
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Baldomero Roxas
Rizal knows his name is being exploited in the Philippines – He regards the Filipinos at Madrid as his friends – He is not resentful – He is sailing for the Philippines.
[01] We give thanks. [02] Literally, “sleeping Homer” (i.e. an inactive poet)/
Details
1891
October
22

Mediterranean Sea
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
After Marseille, magnificent weather, tranquil sea, paiadisiacal voyage - Rizal eager to return home - Something is pushing him to it - Luck or misfortune - Many missionaries on board: Franciscans, Jesuits, and Bishop Volenteri - He sympathizes with the fate of the Philippines - He spoke against the wealth and abuses of the friars in the country - And he repeated: "They are so rich, but very rich!"
1 A character in his novel Noli me tangere
Details
1891
November
1
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Moises E. Salvador
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Transmitting resolutions of the new Committee of Propaganda – Creation of a new organ under Rizal – Reiterates full confidence in Rizal – Orders del Pilar to deliver to Rizal certain funds.
(01) José Rizal. (02) Marcelo H. del Pilar (03) Moisés E. Salvador, Lodge Simb, Araw, 3o .
Details
1891
November
3
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Moises E. Salvador
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Del Pilar’s brother-in-law (Deodato Arellano) frustrates the resolutions; making use of Cortés, opponent – Collection of new funds – The only supporter of del Pilar is his brother-in-law.

Details
1891
November
17
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Moises E. Salvador
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s admirers and supporters in Manila form a Rizal Party – They want to prevent Rizal’s separation from Philippine politics – If he is going to Japan, let Jaena establish the fortnightly in Barcelona with Rizal’s name as editor-in-chief.

Details
1891
November
26
China
Hong Kong
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Manuel Camus
Arrival at Hong Kong – Luna’s letter – Remittance of 20 Filis, 6 Morgas, and 4 Nolis at 25% commission – If Camus could send copies to Manila.

Details
1891
December

Philippines
Manila
Family
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Pi y Margall against Hidalgo's deportation -- Appeal to the Queen -- "If we are not heard we will ask Queen Victoria of England for protection in the name of humanity" -- Weyler does not revoke the order of deportation by his predecessor -- For expenses of the case in the Supreme Court -- Fabie, the pro-friar, fell and Romero Robedo rose up -- Others banished to Joló -- Home news.
(1) Rizal reviewed this work in La Solidaridad, vol. II, No. 43, pp. 256-258. Pi y Margall was a Spanish republican leader and sympathizer of Philippine aspirations. He was the second president, serving for six weeks, of the short-lived Spanish Republic, 1873-1874. (2) Tagalog equivalent of Mama. Tatay is the word for Papa. (3) Common usage in the Philippines to distinguish him from the local Spaniards. (4) Meaning "to make one viable is to deliver oneself." According to L. Spittael the Epistolario Rizalino dates this as December 1 1891
Details
1891
December
1
China
Hong Kong
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
The same painful Calvary . . . . If they would let him rejoin his family, how happy he would be -- "Confident that we shall get out of it safely -- His mother, Pangoy, and Trining were called to the Civil Government -- "Patience!"

Details
1891
December
5
Malaysia
Singapore
Reformer
Manuel Camus
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Acknowledgment of the letters and books of Rizal – Will try to introduce them in the Philippines – El Filibusterismo wil l regenerate the Philippines – Hopes that it will foment hatred of the friars and the pro-friars.

Details
1891
December
9
China
Hong Kong
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
María Mercado
How are you and your family in Calamba? -- His father, Paciano, and Bestre are well -- They send him his books and the letters in the possession of Brother Isidoro -- To establish an agricultural colony in Borneo -- "Be patient, our day will come."

Details
1891
December
10
China
Hong Kong
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Persecuted, the Rizal family seeks asylum in Hong Brother,

Details
1891
December
11
Emuy

Reformer
Sixto López
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
What Fr. Francisco said about Rizal – The friars fear that upon his return the people of Kalamba would agitate – Rizal has the “face of a rascal” associated with other rascals who are in Madrid writing for La Solidaridad.”

Details
1891
December
18


Family
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Letter of Rizal's mother to the Queen -- Money order for the honorarium of the lawyer of the tenants -- Power of attorney for the prosecution of those responsible for his banishment or for the investigation of Weyler -- He is not in favor of the project -- Without having exhausted the means for the country's welfare shall we go to a foreign land? -- For what then are so many sacrifices?

Details
1891
December
21
China
Hong Kong
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mr. Macleod
Rizal thanks Mr. Macleod for the kindness he and his wife have shown his sister Lucia.

Details
1891
December
23
China
Hong Kong
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Governor Eulogio Despujol
Rizal is considered the head of the progressive movement – He offers his cooperation to Despujol – To point out the ills of the country – To heal the wound of recent injustices – And preserve his native land for Spain – Liberal and just policy.

Details
1891
December
27
Philippines
Manila
Family
Narcisa Rizal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The papers Rizal needed -- Not a single letter of Leonor found -- To Mindoro to see her exiled husband and brother -- Death of her two sons.

Details
1891
December
28
China
Hong Kong
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
María Mercado
Beloved ones at his side in Hong Kong -- Suffer the pains of this life so that in the next, joy and happiness will be for you -- Life is short, hardships are ephemeral -- Suffer everything for your surname Rizal and your children -- Requests
(1) It is a Tagalog term derived from the Spanish cabeza, meaning "head." Her husband is "head of barangay," hence she is called Kabesa. In the Philippines as in Germany, the wife of an official is addressed with the husband's title; thus the wife of a Gobernador is addressed as Goernadora, the feminine of Gobernador.
Details
1891
December
30
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Lorenzo Miclat y Castro
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
An unknown admirer Cabeza de Barangay of Binondo offers to help Rizal with a monthly quota – Asks for his address.

Details
1891
December
30
China
Hong Kong
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
The aged mother of Rizal is in Hong Kong fleeing from Spanish tyranny - Taken to Sta. Cruz throw h mountains because she did not sign her name Realonda de Rizal but only Teodora Alonso - Rizal censured the savage hidalgo who made her walk through such a rough trail-La Solidaridad is no longer our battlefield - A cunning Augustinian tried to assault Rizal and he came out abashed.

Details
1891
December
30
Philippines
Manila
Family
Concha
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Book and letters received -- Admirable valor and serenity of Rizal's mother -- God protects innocence -- Letters for Macleod and others -- News of home and friends -- They arrested Mr. Matías Belarmino, sick, and on Christmas day, to be deported to Jolo.

Details
1892
January

Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Antonio Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Ready to defend our right without abandoning the campaign in Madrid – Spaniards give a political character to the events in Kalamba – Spanish policy is to reign by terror – “We ought to work together for independence” – Win partisans of independence – “Borneo will be a keystone for us.” – Luna may also join Rizal in Borneo.

Details
1892
January
2
Philippines
Manila
Family
Aristeo Ubaldo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Greetings and good wishes -- Absence of the dear father in exile -- They don't know how long it will last -- Where will they continue their studies? Beside their Uncle Rizal or at Manila?
(1) Familiar form of address for grandfather. (2) Familiar form of address for grandmother.
Details
1892
January
6
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Graciano López Jaena
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Work of the Filipino colony of Barcelona in favor of Kalamba – Reply of the Minister of Colonies – Send letter to the unfortunate exiles – “I make much noise here. . . .” – Jaena wants to edit a newspaper affiliated with the Progressive Party – A fortnightly is useless – His financial problem – He is asking Deputies Muro and Ballesteros to interpellant the Government on the events in Kalamba.

Details
1892
January
8
Belgium
Brussels
Reformer
José Alejandrino
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The Rizal Party in the Philippines would like Rizal to return to Europe and be the leader of the Filipinos there – His pension will be sent regularly – offers condolence for the outrages in Kalamba – Convinced that nothing could be expected from Spain – Vicente Reyes and the sale of the Fili.

Details
1892
January
8
Belgium
Ghent
Reformer
Edilberto Evangelista
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Sympathy with the people of Kalamba – they are a credit to the native land – The outrage affects the whole country – Those of the Propaganda have vindicated Rizal by entrusting to him the management of La Solidaridad and our policy in Europe – Life in Ghent is very dull – Evangelista is devoted to his studies.

Details
1892
January
13
Borneo
Sandakan
Others
Mrs. Ada Pryer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mrs. Pryer hopes Rizal can go to Borneo – A Filipino colony as Rizal plans would be welcome.

Details
1892
January
17
Spain
Madrid
Others
A. Linarés Rivas
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Attorney Linarés Rivas deplores the afflictions of the Rizal Family – Will work to mitigate them – Politics delay the remedy – He has conferred with the Minister of Colonies on the outrages of Kalamba.

Details
1892
January
23
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Polemic on Philippine topics Busy with the Pansit of Krypto-Quioquiap.
1 A dish of noodles mixed with pork, shrimps, garlic, and onions. ..
Details
1892
January
27
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Ariston Bautista Lim
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
A post card from Ariston Bautista – Interest in Rizal’s Borneo project – If life becomes unbearable in Manila, he may join Rizal in Borneo – A society in Paris for the welfare of the country.
(01) Dr. Ariston Bautista Lim (1863-1928): a Manila physician and philanthropist.
Details
1892
January
30
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Beside the beloved - A lesson for the Augustinian who may not have understood it - The friars keep the people stupid and in so doing they themselves become stupid - He counsels Rizal not to meddle in revolutionary agitations - "One who initiates a revolution ought at least to have the probability of success, if he does not wish to burden his conscience with useless bloodshed" - Wise theories of Blumentritt on the success of revolutions - Lessons of history - Propaganda of liberty and education among the masses.

Details
1892
January
30
France
Paris
Reformer
Juan Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
At Manila things consigned to Rizal are closely watched at the customs – A popular meeting in a Paris theater in protest against the outrages in Kalamba – He is not optimistic about its effect – Spain, always “on the side of her men of the sword” – 21 drawings of Luna for the Noli – Offers to illustrate also El Filibusterismo – Booklets with drawings for popular education – Inquiries about the Borneo colonization project.

Details
1892
January
31
China
Hong Hong
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Because of hatred of the friars many have lost their faith and they do not want to return to the .Philippines - Horrible picture of the ejectment of householders! - Poor Kalamba people! Thrown out of their houses, they pass the night outdoors - The Dominicans have forbidden the townspeople to give them lodging - Terrified they looked on while the government soldiers destroyed and burned down their houses! - Rizal's third novel in Tagalog - On the virtues and defects of the Tagalogs.
1Voices crying in the desert where all are lost. 2 See his letter dated 20 April 1892 pp. 4
Details
1892
February

Philippines
Manila
Family
Saturnina
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Will move to Hong Kong to rejoin the family-- Lack of knowledge of English is not an obstacle in trading -- A language is learned quickly -- She wishes to educate her children at Hong Kong -- And the boys to study engineering at London.

Details
1892
February
1
China
Hong Kong
Others
Mallunko
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
He issues a receipt to Rizal for payment of rent.

Details
1892
February
6
China
Hong Kong
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Sixto López
Rizal announces to Mr. López his clinic at Hong Kong – He asks him to write him a “scolding” letter to see if will pass the censor.
[01] Meaning Mr. José Ma. Basa, Filipino exile residing there. [02] Mr. López’ physician. [03] Tagalog version of the Spanish word cabeza meaning “head.” [04] Mrs. Trinidad Zobel. See López’ letter, 18 March 1892 here The fans were sent by Juan Luna. See Letter # 275 (especially the addendum) here.
Details
1892
February
9
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Pedro Serrano Laktaw
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
A Masonic document making Rizal Honorary Venerable of Logia Nilad for outstanding services to his native country – Masonic reorganization – Signed by Panday Pira, Masonic name of Pedro Serrano Laktaw.

Details
1892
February
17
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Pedro Govantes
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Regretting the moral and material disaster which has befallen the Rizal family – Confidence in Linares’ efforts.

Details
1892
February
18
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Graciano López Jaena
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
López Jaena in difficulties – Full of dread, without hope of help – The new committee does not even exist, the old one is agonizing – They asked him to return to his post and now they abandon him – Coincidence in the name of La Liga – Copies of El Filibusterismo for his brother at Iloilo.

Details
1892
February
22
China
Hong Kong
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Sixto López
Rizal informs López about certain orders of his.
[01] The majordomo of the ship making trips between Manila and Hong Kong.l Apparently Rizal’s friends took advantage of his excessive kindness.
Details
1892
February
23
China
Hong Kong
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Any political change - "If the Germans pity us so much, why do they not come to liberate us?" says Rizal's father - "What did we get from La Solidaridad's campaign? Weyleradas, Banditry Law, and the drama of Kalamba - T o discuss with the Government is time waste….Always ready to serve the country with the pen and give my life for her," says Rizal. - "In Borneo I shall not be a planter but the leader of the planters." - "If I cannot give freedom to my country, at least I should like to give it to my compatriots in other lands." "We shall found there a new Kalamba.'

Details
1892
March

Philippines

Family
Saturnina
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
As soon as she has finished some collections and business, she too with join the family at Hong Kong -- Silvestre is now free and visits them.

Details
1892
March
7
Philippines
Manila
Family
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Petition to the Governor General signed by the wives of the heads of the barangay -- Telegram of Procutor Manzaneque urging the remittance of funds -- Great difficulties of the interested party and pawning of jewels -- Attorney Gutíerrez defends faithfully the people of Calamba -- They complain against Attorney Felipe Buencarmino.
(1) Said to be the prototype of "Doña Victoria," a character in Rizal's novel, Noli me tangere. (2) Name of a steamboat plying between Manila and Hong Kong.
Details
1892
March
17
Philippines
Calamba
Family
Antonio López
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Well but restless -- The exiles in Joló were pardoned on the birthday of the governor general -- It is impossible at present to sell the homestead of the Rizal family -- Grand celebration of the governor general’s birthday . . . to Calamba to hear complaints.

Details
1892
March
17
China
Hong Kong
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
To La Solidaridad and Associación Hispano-Filipina
Grateful to La Solidaridad for its support of the Kalambeños – Rizal wrote on the happenings for English papers – Not an echo in the Spanish press – Linares Rivas promises redress for the grievances – Some pardoned – Difficulty of sending La Solidaridad to Manila – If comrades for the struggle are lacking, there are avengers – Would like “to go to Manila to see the bull at close hand. . . .”
(01) Linares Rivas was a Spanish lawyer and politician who sympathized with the Philippine cause.
Details
1892
March
18
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Sixto Lopez
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
130 pesos from S. López to settle accounts in Hong Kong; the balance to pay for copies of Filibusterismo – All refuse to accept the 25% commission offered by Rizal – Rizal’s circular will be taken to Balayan – Mrs. Trinidad Zobel advises Rizal not to return to the Philippines for he would be killed – Many Batangueñas are awaiting Rizal’s report on Borneo.

Details
1892
March
18
Philippines
Manila
Family
Silvester Ubaldo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Books, drafts, and other effects sent to Rizal -- Feast of the captain general celebrated with pomp -- But he absented himself to avoid gossip -- His wife received at the palace the principalía and other invited guests -- The archbishop was aloof at the reception -- He will be granted leave of absence to go to Spain, but he must resign first -- Copy of the pardon -- Fire at Plaza San Gabriel -- Rizal's sympathizers send him bank drafts.
(1) A saying in Tagalog meaning, "a wounded hero doubles his valor." (2) Formerly on the site where no is the Jones Bridge. (3) A large bazaar owned by a Chinese named Velasco that stood in the corner of Rosario and San Vicente Streets. (4) (4) Name of a wealthy Chinese. (5) Sixto López, a patriot, friend of Rizal, and a wealthy Filipino from Balayan, Batangas.
Details
1892
March
19
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizall
Greetings of the Filipino Colony of Leitmeritz formed by the Blumentritt family on Rizal's saint's day, St. Joseph, l9 March.

Details
1892
March
21
France
Biarritz
Others
Edward Boustead
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Felicitations on the salvation of his family – Aid of the Throne of Grace – May Rizal escape friar intrigues – And attain success as a physician – Fire in Manila – Biarritz is very lively – Remembering the excursion with Rizal to St. Jean de Lux – The mumps or orillons – Business from bad to worse – Fall of the peseta -- impending financial crisis.

Details
1892
March
21
China
Hong Kong
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Governor Eulogio Despujol
Rizal’s second letter to the governor general of the Philippines – Reiterates his offer of cooperation to bring about peace and tranquility – Informs him of his Borneo project – Requests permission to change nationality and emigrate for himself and his friends.

Details
1892
March
24
France
Paris
Reformer
Aristón Bautista
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
A post card from Bautista inquires about General Despujol’s treatment of Rizal – Del Pilar suggests congratulations to Despujol – Fee, for the issue of Rizal’s diploma by the Ministry of Fomento Development. Presents Rizal with a book on diagnostic pathology by H. Virchon.

Details
1892
March
31
Belgium
Ghent
Reformer
Edilberto Evangelista
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Disappointed at the conservative ideas of our old folks – Dismal legacy of slavery – Family interests and patriotic ideas and liberty – To die for the country is a duty – Against the stupid expression: “What a waste of blood!” – May those conservative ideas not infect our youth – Voice of encouragement – Friends keep aloof because of his poverty.

Details
1892
April
3
Borneo
Sandakan
Others
W. B. Pryer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s project to lease land in British North Borneo entailed considerable correspondence, as this and the following letters show. Mr. Pryer is the manger of the Dunlop Corporation in Borneo.

Details
1892
April
4
Borneo
Sandakan
Others
W. B. Pryer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mr. Pryer is willing to act as agent of Rizal on a commission basis.

Details
1892
April
5
Borneo
Sandakan
Others
W. B. Pryer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Another business note from Mr. Pryer.

Details
1892
April
5
Borneo
Sandakan
Others
W. B. Pryer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mr. Pryer invites Rizal to tea to talk over business matters.

Details
1892
April
6
Borneo
Sandakan
Others
W. B. Pryer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The governor of British North Borneo will receive Rizal and Mr. Pryer

Details
1892
April
13
Belgium
Ghent
Reformer
José Alejandrino
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Favorable conditions for patriotic campaign – Confidence in Rizal’s ability to work for our liberty – He will know how to overcome obstacles to such a noble cause. – We cannot expect anything from Spain – Less from Spanish charlatans – Rizal purchasing some revolvers – He will send the Flobert cartridges ordered by Rizal.

Details
1892
April
15
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Graciano López Jaena
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Struggling with poverty and the gloomy future – His letter to Basa will tell him about his life – “What should I do?” – Recommend the Association in Hong Kong from which something good for the country will emerge.

Details
1892
April
16
France
Paris
Reformer
Dr. Ariston Bautista Lim
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Returns to Manila summoned by his mother – Presentiment of a great disaster – Awaiting Rizal’s instructions for the triumph of good aspirations – Unity of the divided party at home – Let us maintain our ideal – Trained in French boxing and wielding a sword, he will not allow the Kastilas to mock him.

Details
1892
April
18


Others
Lorenzo P. Marquez
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s friend, the Portuguese physician, Dr. Lorenzo P. Marquez, sends him a gift of three birds with a suggestion on how to cook them.

Details
1892
April
20
China
Hong Kong
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal, having returned from Borneo, answers Blumentritt - A former Dominican professor of Rizal made a statement in his favor, defending his books and the people of Kalamba - The rector of the University and even the archbishop disapprove of the Kalamba atrocities.
1 Wife of Konrad Labhart, consul of Austria-Hungary at Manila. Mr. Labhart died in the Philippines and was buried in San Pedro Makati. 2 Shakespeare's Macbeth: From Lady Macbeth's soliloquy
Details
1892
April
28
Borneo
Sandakan
Others
Mrs. Ada Pryer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mrs. Pryer thanks Rizal for a gift of Japanese curtains. – Hopes he will come back.
[01] Rizal’s Borneo project failed because of the refusal of the Philippine government to grant the necessary permission.
Details
1892
April
29
Belgium
Ghent
Reformer
Edilberto Evangelista
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
In the clutches of poverty – Encouraging words for Rizal – Organize a Revolutionary club in Hong Kong as do the Separatistas of Cuba, the Progresistas of Spain – Nostalgia.
(01) Cuba was also under Spain. The Separatistas were for Cuban independence.
Details
1892
April
29
Borneo
Sandakan
Others
W. B. Pryer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The Borneo governor refuses to give 5,000 acres of land free.

Details
1892
May
4
China
Hong Knog
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
How good is Blumentritt and how he likes Rizal - The Noli will be translated into English and French - It wile be well received in England according to Hong Kong friends. The Tagalog translation is about to be finished.

Details
1892
May
11
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Mariano Ponce
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Ponce sends Rizal and his family greetings – How sad it is not to be able to return to the motherland! Let us help one another until the day of vengeance comes!

Details
1892
May
14
Philippines
Manila
Family
Antonio López
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal's letter to Governor General Despujol -- On inspection trip in the Southern Islands -- News of his sister Sisa.
(1) Rizal's second letter to Governor General Despujol reiterating his offer of his services to the administration, dated at Hong Kong, 21 March, 1892. In it he informs His Excellency of his Borneo project, that is, to establish a Filipino colony in North Borneo. (Epistolario Rizalino, III, 305-307)
Details
1892
May
14
France
Paris
Reformer
Antonio Vergel de Dios
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Wishes Rizal a large clientele in Hong Kong – His brother Eugenio Vergel inquires were Rizal’s books can be obtained in the Philippines – Strict customs regulations prevent him from sending Rizal’s book to the Philippines – offers his services to Rizal.

Details
1892
May
17
China
Hong Kong
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Baldomero Roxas
At last Rizal receives a duplicate of his diploma – Licentiate in Medicine and Surgery – the original diploma sent to the governor general of the Philippines has been lost – Rizal graduated in 1884 – The Committee on Propaganda at Manila has not written Rizal – Blumentritt informs him that La Solidaridad will cease publication – At Hong Kong Rizal writes – The Noli is out of print – He asks for the return of unsold copies.

Details
1892
May
19
Borneo
Sandakan
Others
W. B. Pryer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s draft "Bases" sent to the Directors in England - Pryer tells him North Borneo is the best place for Philippine Colonization.

Details
1892
May
20
Borneo
Sandalkan
Others
Henry Walker
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Encouraging information: very great local demand for rice – Available water for irrigation and to operate rice mills.

Details
1892
May
21
Borneo
Sandakan
Others
Hugh Hughes
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
He extols the Sugar Estate – He is acting as real estate agent. H. Hughes & Co.
[01] the name of the steamer plying between Hong Kong and Borneo.
Details
1892
May
23
Borneo
Sandakan
Others
W. B. Pryer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
He would like Rizal to buy land of him - He does not recommend the Laluk Estate.

Details
1892
May
23
Philippines
Manila
Family
Antonio López
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Sisa, fairly improved -- Despujol is not here yet -- Awaiting pardon on the eve of His Majesty's birthday -- Everyone is opposed to Rizal's return -- Abroad he can do much for the country's welfare -- As soon as he is freed, they will all go to Hong Kong for a visit.

Details
1892
May
23
China
Hong Kong
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Disgusted by the article of Lete in La Solidaridad – Rizal believed he was alluded to – “What animal has bitten you that you attack me?” – “I am not meddling in politics and I work only to prepare a place for refuge.” – “I made Simoun a dark figure so that those of Solidaridad would not appear as filibusteros,” – An article on Borneo is ready – Awaiting a satisfactory explanation.
(01) Lete’s article is entitled “Iluso” (Visionary). Rizal believed that he was alluded to within it.
Details
1892
May
23
China
Hong Kong
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
Unexpected attack of Lete – Why did del Pilar allow its publication? -- They will think there is schism among the Filipinos – Rizal would not take offence so that things would not become worse – Do they pretend to attack him in order to show that they are partisans of assimilation? -- “I will pursue my policy and will try to guess your purposes.” – Attacks improve he who wishes to improve himself.

Details
1892
May
24
China
Hong Kong
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Juan Zulueta
Rizal informs the secretary of the Committee of Propaganda at Manila about Lete’s article, Iluso – it is indiscreet.

Details
1892
May
26
Spain
Barcelona
Reformer
Graciano López Jaena
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal’s post card from Borneo – Congratulations on the foundation of the Filipino colony – López Jaena wishes to move there and cultivate sugarcane – Filipino colony at Madrid in a lamentable state – La Solidaridad is languishing.

Details
1892
May
31
Vietnam
Saigon
Reformer
Aristón Bautista
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
A post card from Bautista asks Rizal to send him “instructions for the guidance of those working for the realization of our ideals.”

Details
1892
June
15
China
Hong Kong
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mariano Ponce
The idea of a Tagalog printing press is good – It can disseminate quickly what we want – What are needed is courage, character, and diligence.

Details
1892
June
15
China
Hong Kong
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Attacking me in Solidaridad. . . would be equivalent to disowning its own principles in its last days – “Rizal does not believe that the reformists are more useful abroad, than in their own county – Can a patient be cured more quickly by having the physician and the medicine far from him?” Rizal’s return to the Philippines is strongly opposed.

Details
1892
June
19
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Timoteo Páez
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Publication of Lete’s article, “Iluso” resented – Páez will name his son after Rizal – Masonry is progressing – Will send Rizal a good copy of Florante at Laura.
(01) Moisés E. Salvador, fellow reformist of Rizal, member of La Liga Filipina, who was executed by the Spanish government. (02) Modest Español y Evangelista. (03) An article written by Eduardo Lete and published in La Solidaridad, 15 April, 1892 (04) The name of his office is the letterhead: Echeita y Portuondo. (05) The sponsor at the baptism or confirmation of a child becomes a compadre of the parents of the child. Páez named his son José after Rizal. (06) The Manila physician Dr. Felipe Zamora (07) He refers to the metrical romance in Tagalog, Florante at Laura by the celebrated poet, Francisco Baltazar (also known as Balagtas).
Details
1892
June
20
China
Hong Kong
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
To the Filipinos
Determined to go to the Philippines – “I cannot live knowing that many are suffering unjust persecution on my account.”—“Seeing my people persecuted like criminals” -- “I offer my life gladly to free so many innocent persons” -- “Let those who deny us patriotism see that we know how to die for our duty and convictions.” -- “What does it matter to die, if one dies for what one loves, for the Native Land?”

Details
1892
June
20
China
Hong Kong
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
Rizal decides to return to the Philippines -- The persecution of the innocent preoccupies him -- He would like to save them from further suffering -- Willing to risk his life -- "Man ought to die for his ideas and convictions."

Details
1892
June
21
China
Hong Kong
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Governor Eulogio Despujol
Rizal informs the governor general of his return to the Philippines – Expresses confidence in the justness of the government – at Manila he will await the pleasure of the governor general.

Details
1892
July
3
Philippines
Manila
Others
Victoriano Fernz Lobato
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The aide-de-camp of the Captain General notifies Rizal of the postpone­ment of the interview with Governor General Despujol to 6 July 1892, 8 a.m.

Details
1892
July
4
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
"No Pilarista speaks ill of you." -An entente cordiale in the interest of all. - Rizal should not found another newspaper or initiate revolutionary movements. - Blumentritt recommends reconciliation. - He receives regularly letters only from Rizal, Pardo de Tavera, del Pilar, Taga-Ilog1 and Ponce. - "I shall not be a deserter," says Blumentritt.

Details
1892
July
7
Belgium
Gand
Reformer
José Alejandrino
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Abreu dies of tuberculosis—How sad it is to die young! For one who has a rosy future! Professors and friends of the deceased expressed sorrow – He will help in the distribution of El Filibusterismo.
(01) It refers to the landlady. (02) Note by Mariano Ponce: “Rizal did not get to read this letter, having arrived at Hong Kong on 9 August 1892, when Rizal was already in exile in Dapitan.
Details
1892
July
16
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
The news of the deportation of Rizal saddens the home of the Blumentritts - He hopes he will regain his freedom - Rizal's devoted friends will work to restore to him his freedom.

Details
1892
July
20
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Grieved by the deportation of Rizal—“Soon I will follow you; let us see if we can scatter the seed”—Pi y Margall and the European colony deplore it—According to del Pilar it is not Rizal whom Lete attacks—It was a call to reflection and duty—Machiavelli divides us.

Details
1892
July
20
Spain
Madrid
Reformer
Eduardo Lete
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Lete is surprised that Rizal believed himself alluded to in his satirical article – Rizal is not the revolutionary Quixote combated by him – Rizal is not one of those who believe that with a sentry-box a revolution can be started.
NOTE: The last page of the above letter is missing which must have been lost while it was still in the presence of Mr. Ponce. The letter therefore has no signature. But by the handwriting and style it seems to be an authentic letter of Lete.
Details
1892
July
25
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Teodora Alonso
"As if I were on vacation in Dapitan" -- Loving remembrance to his mother -- He commends his brother for substituting for his exiled brother-in-law Antonino -- They should remain in Hong Kong for its good climate. -- His sister should continue studying English -- They should keep the spacious house to accommodate relatives who may go there.
(1) Dapitan is not yet a province. (2) Rizal seems to think that his exile would not last long, that he would regain his freedom soon.
Details
1892
September
1
Philippines
Dapitan
Pastells
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Fr. Pablo Pastells
Rizal thanks Fr. Pastells for his gift of a book by Sarda. Replies to Fr. Pastells' message sent through Fr. Obach of Dapitan. - Expresses his opinion frankly and sincerely - "Self-esteem is dignity" - Thanks him for his advice. The letter in Spanish is a transcription of the draft of an unfinished letter of Dr. Rizal. NOTE: For a different translation go here: http://www.geocities.com/cavitesu/pastells.htm

Details
1892
September
3
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Ildefonso Laurel
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Deploring the unfortunate deportation of Rizal – Our people consider you their redeemer and savior – All are ready to shed their blood for the Motherland.
(1) Deodato Arellano, Filipino reformer and revolutionary, who, with Andrés Bonifacio, Ildefonso Laurel, Ladislao Diwa, Valentin Diaz, and Theodoro Plata was one of the founders of the Katipunan which started the Philippine Revolution of 1896.
Details
1892
October
12
Philippines
Manila
Pastells
Fr. Pablo Pastells
Dr.. Jose P. Rizal
Father Pastells goes into lengthy philosophic-religious disquisitions Sends him a booklet, Contemptus Mundi Remind him of his Ateneo days at Manila.
[01] Right and merit. [02] Nothing enters the mind which has not been previously felt by the senses. [03] Literally, he who attempts too much accomplishes little! Or All covet, all lose. [04] We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts: Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man; but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. 2 Peter 1:19-21 (Moreover, we possess the prophetic message that is altogether reliable. You will do well to be attentive to it, as to a lamp shining in a dark place, until day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts. Know this first of all, that there is no prophecy of scripture that is a matter of personal interpretation, for no prophecy ever came through human will; but rather human beings moved by the Holy Spirit spoke under the influence of God. New American Bible translation) [05] God, who at sundry times and in diverse manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son Hebrews 1:1-2 (In times past, God spoke in partial and various ways to our ancestors through the prophets; in these last days, he spoke to us through a son, whom he made heir of all things and through whom he created the universe, New American Bible translation) [06] O Father, Lord of Heaven and earth, that thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast thou revealed them unto babes: even so, Father; for so it seemed good in thy sight. Luke 10:21 ("I give you praise, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, for although you have hidden these things from the wise and the learned you have revealed them to the childlike. Yes, Father, such has been your gracious will. New American Bible translation). [07] This is the will of God to make you holy. God wishes men to be saved and to come into the knowledge of the truth. 1 Timothy 2:3-4 (This is good and pleasing to God our savior, who wills everyone to be saved and to come to knowledge of the truth. New American Bible translation). [08] Therefore we erred. [09] Peace, peace, and there was no peace. Jeremiah 6:14 (’Peace, peace!’ They say, though there is no peace. New American Bible translation).
Details
1892
October
13
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Anacleto del Rosario y Sales
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
His analysis of the waters of Luzon – Gift to Rizal: a bottle of Fehling’s liquor and tubes for experiments – Reminds Rizal of happy days of the Marian Congregation – the value of religious sentiments in adversity – Without them, what would life be?

Details
1892
October
25
Philippines
Dapitan
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Ricardo Carnicero
Rizal would like to see his relatives and the townsmen of Calamba exiled to Jolo in Dapitan – The would attract settlers who would cultivate the immense lands of Mindanao – He would engage in farming if he were completely fre – His parents would come and he would have his books brought – He promises not to abuse his liberty.

Details
1892
November
1
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
His letter confiscated by the friars? - Loleng, a lover of Spanish and Tagalog - Rizal should write a Tagalog grammar in his exile - Picture of a Subano - Before the statue of Prometheus of Rizal - And the Triumph of Knowledge over Death - An Ilongot catechism.
1"May an avenger arise from your ashes," paraphrasing Vergil's line. See footnote 2, letter No. 150.
Details
1892
November
11
Philippines
Dapitan
Pastells
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Fr. Pablo Pastells
Rizal is grateful for a copy of Kempis’ Imitation of Christ, of Fr. Chirino, Fr. Delgado, and Cartas de las Misioneros - Brilliant defense of his espousal of the Philippine cause - Noli me tangere is not inspired by any resentment or by the Germans - He is not a Protestant He prefers light to shade. He bears his misfortunes philosophically.
[01] Fragment of verse 5 of The Poetic Art of Horace. It is applied to ridiculous things. [02] A small sailing vessel.
Details
1892
November
30
China
Hong Kong
Reformer
José Ma. Basa
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Basa’s account of Rizal’s books for March 1889 – December 1891
This date is not certain but is used because of the context of the letter. This must be end 1892. Note in Letter mentions November 30, 1892! NHI dates this letter after October 13, 1892
Details
1892
December
8
Philippines
Dapitan
Pastells
Fr. Pablo Pastells
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Fr. Pastells is deeply interested in Rizal’s eternal salvation. He claims Rizal has expressed Protestant ideas in his books – Quotes the Bible, St. Augustine, etc.
[01] Destroy errors and love men. [02] He who is not with me is against me. [03] And other sheep I have which are not of this fold, and them also I must bring and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold and one shepherd. John 10:16. [04] I am come to send fire on the earth and what will I if it be already kindled? Luke 12:49. I came not to send peace, but a sword. Matthew 10:34. [05] I am the light of the world; he that follows me shall not walk in darkness. John 8:12. [06] That was the true Light which enlightens every man that comes into the world. John 1:9. [07] I am the truth. From John 14:6. [08] I think, therefore, I exist. [09] I believe in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten son of God, born of the Father before all ages, God of God; Light of Light; true God of true God. Begotten not made, consubstantial with the Father, by Whom all things were made, who for us, and for our salvation came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary and was made Man. He was crucified also for us, suffered under Pontius Pilate, and was buried. And the third day He rose again according to the Scriptures. And ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of the Father. And He shall come again with glory to judge both the living and the dead and His kingdom shall have no end. [From the Nicene Creed] [10] From one learn all. [11] Jesus lifted up his eyes and said, Father, I thank you that you have heard me. And I know that you hear me always; but because of the people who stand by, I said it that they may believe that you have sent me. And when he thus had spoken, he cried with a loud voice, “Lazarus, come forth.” And he that was dead came forth, bound hand and foot with grave clothes and his face was bound about with a napkin. Jesus said unto them, “Loose him and let him go.” (John 11:42-44) [12] Behold we go up to Jerusalem and all things that are written by the prophets concerning the SON of man shall be accomplished. For He shall be delivered unto the Gentiles, and shall be mocked, and spitefully entreated, and spit upon, and they shall scourge Him and put Him to death; and the third day He shall rise again. (Luke 18:31-33) [13] Tell no one what things they had seen until the Son of man is raised from the dead. (Matthew 17:9) [14] Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. (John 2:19) [15] I will go before you into Galilee. (Matthew 26:32) [16] Now I am reminding you, brothers, of the gospel I preached to you, which you indeed received and in which you also stand. Through it you are also being saved, if you hold fast to the word I preached to you, unless you believed in vain. For I handed on to you as of first importance what I also received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the scriptures; that he was buried; that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the scriptures; that he appeared to Cephas, then to the Twelve. After that, he appeared to more than five hundred brothers at once, most of whom are still living, though some have fallen asleep. After that he appeared to James, then to all the apostles. Last of all, as to one born abnormally, he appeared to me. For I am the least of the apostles, not fit to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God. But by the grace of God I am what I am, and his grace to me has not been ineffective. Indeed, I have toiled harder than all of them; not I, however, but the grace of God that is with me. Therefore, whether it be I or they, so we preach and so you believed. But if Christ is preached as raised from the dead, how can some among you say there is no resurrection of the dead? If there is no resurrection of the dead, then neither has Christ been raised. And if Christ has not been raised, then empty (too) is our preaching; empty, too, your faith. Then we are also false witnesses to God, because we testified against God that he raised Christ, whom he did not raise if in fact the dead are not raised. For if the dead are not raised, neither has Christ been raised, and if Christ has not been raised, your faith is vain; you are still in your sins. Then those who have fallen asleep in Christ have perished. If for this life only we have hoped in Christ, we are the most pitiable people of all. But now Christ has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who have fallen asleep. For since death came through a human being, the resurrection of the dead came also through a human being. For just as in Adam all die, so too in Christ shall all be brought to life. [17] Take these things away; do not my father’s house a house of merchandise. [John 2:16] [18] “What sign do you show unto us, seeing that you do these things?” Christ replied, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.” [John 2:18-19] [19] It took forty-six years to build this temple, and will you raise it up in three days? [John 2:19] [20] But he spoke of the temple of his body. When therefore he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this to them, and they elevated the scriptures, and the word Jesus had said. [John 2:21-22] [21] I am the beginning and the end. [Revelation 1:8] [22] Therefore, do and observe all things whatsoever they tell you,… [Matthew 23:3] [23] Do not be called 'Master'; you have but one master, the Messiah. [Matthew 23:10] [24] I am the truth and the life. [from John 14:6]
Details
1892
December
30
Philippines
Dapitan
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Fr. Francisco de Paula Sáchez
How to prepare bakhaw paste – Rizal’s recipe.

Details
1893
January

Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
New Year's Greetings

Details
1893
January
9
Philippines
Dapitan
Pastells
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Fr. Pablo Pastells
Rizal explains his concept of God. Note: This letter is a composite of the English translation of the Epistolario Rizalino by the National Heroes Commission / National Historical Institute (which is incomplete) and that of Fr. Raul J. Bonoan, S.J., The Rizal Pastells Correspondence (Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1994), pp. 161-165

Details
1893
January
19
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
To supply Dapitan with fish -- Small sakag catches only little fish -- With a large pukútan more fish can be caught-- And two Calamba fishermen.
(1) A characteristic Chinese pronunciation of paciencia (patience).
Details
1893
February
2
Philippines
Dapitan
Pastells
Fr. Pablo Pastells
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Acknowledging Rizal’s gift of an image of Saint Paul, carved by him – A long letter much like a sermon on subjects such as God, Revelation, faith, and the like.
[01] “Simon, Simon, behold Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat, but I have prayed for thee that thy faith fail not and when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren.” Luke 22:31, 32. [02] “Feed my lambs. Feed my sheep.” John 21:15-16. [03] All writings ought to be read in accordance with the spirit of the one who wrote them. [04] “Behold, are not all these which speak Galileans?” Acts 2:7. [05] “And how hear we every man in our own tongue, wherein we were born?” Acts 2:8. [06] “So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. But I say, ‘Have they not heard?’ Yes verily, thei r sound went into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the world.” Romans 10:17-18. [07] “God wishes all men to be saved and to come into the knowledge of the truth.” I Timothy 2:4. [08] “I do not wish the death of the impious but that he should be converted and live.” Fr. Pastells is wrong in identifying this paraphrase Isaiah than from Ezekiel 18:23. The exact quote: “Do I indeed derive any pleasure from the death of the wicked? says the Lord GOD. Do I not rather rejoice when he turns from his evil way that he may live?” (New American Bible) [09] “In this was manifested the love of God toward us, because that God sent his only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through him.” John 4:9. [10] God does not deny grace to the suffering. [11] “In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace. Wherein he hath abounded toward us in all wisdom and prudence; having made known unto us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he hath purposed in himself; that in the dispensation of the fullness of times he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth even in him. Ephesians 1:7-10. [12] “By him and with Him and in Him is to thee God (the Father Almighty in the unity of the Holy Ghost) all honor and glory. Amen.” It is taken from the doxology of the Eucharistic prayer at the end of the Roman Catholic Mass.
Details
1893
February
8
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
The price of the small dragnet -- In partnership with another -- Choleng's convalescence -- If his sisters would visit him -- His santol in bloom by March but not the lanzon -- Rizal's hammock will be imitated -- Naming of his land -- do not send him bancas.

Details
1893
February
14
Philippines
Dapitan
Others
Jun Lardet
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Retraction of phrases mortifying to Rizal in a letter to Antonio Miranda.
(1) - According to L. Spittael his full name is Juan Lardet
Details
1893
February
15
Philippines
Dapitan
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
In his ostracism he has little correspondence - "They treat me more than humanly" - Roads to civilized forest - "I lack nothing except my freedom, my family, and my books" - About the Tagalog language - Photo of a Subano - Blumentritt and the Ilongot language - Philological disquisitions - How is Loleng?
1 He always addressed him "friend and brother" but as the letter had to pass through the censors, he dropped "brother" as it might be interpreted in its Masonic meaning. Blumentritt was not a Mason. (Retana) 2 He alludes to the members of Blumentritt's family. 3 Blumentritt used to write him in German. 4 More properly, politico-military commander of the district. During the Spanish regime, the chiefs executive of districts, which were not regular provinces, were called politico-military commanders. 5 Rizal's library at one time was composed of about a thousand items but now it is reduced to some five hundred without a single item dealing with the Philippines. The greater number of the books deal with general ethnology and anthropology, and medicine, and works of Goethe, Schiller, Balzac, Zola, Jovellanos, Prevost, etc. It seems that the family has been exploited and the most choice books either disappeared or were destroyed in Hong Kong. In 1906 the library consisted of some 500 volumes that Mr. Jose Ma. Basa, a Filipino resident at Hong Kong and a great friend of Rizal, kept for a period , of twelve years. These 500 volumes arrived at Manila in June 1906 and El Renacimiento (No. 19, June) in giving the news proposed that they-be bought and preserved as a sacred thing. (Retana) 6 For his scientific works. Blumentritt has translated or published an abridgement of some of the ethnographic studies of Father Sanchez, making them known through the principal technical reviews of Europe. (Retana) 7 He alludes to a work entitled Estudios sobre la lenguna tagala -hat he dedicated to Fr. Sanchez. Shortly thereafter he conceived the plan and he began to carry it out, of writing in English a Gramatica tagala comparada (Comparative Tagalog Grammar). He informed Dr. Rost about it. In a letter that I have, Dr. Rost said to me that, judging by his impressions and considering Rizal's knowledge, the new work of the illustrious Tagalog promised to be notable. Dr. Rost, who died in 1896, shared with the Dutch Kern the enviable fame of possessing Ma lay and the languages derived from it. (Retana) 8 The Subanos constitute one of the most interesting tribes in Min¬danao. The great ethnographer Blumentritt has published some studies of that tribe which, like his works, are excellent. (Retana) 9 Blumentritt's daughter named Dolores. In the Philippines the pet name for Dolores is Loleng (Tagalog version of Lola, Spanish). She was given this name by her father who, though a Bohemian by birth, has been for many years a Spanish -Filipino at heart. (Retana) 10 Rizal, during his stay at Leitmeritz, gave Loleng some Tagalog lessons. She already knew Spanish, taught by her fatter who, speaks and writes eleven European languages. (Retana)
Details
1893
March
7
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Deportees in Jolo freed -- Waiting for the fish net -- Inviting his brothers -- The climate and the low cost of living there -- The lucrative abaca business -- His furniture and books -- His pretty little house built

Details
1893
March
30
Philippines
Dapitan
Others
Jun Lardet
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Full satisfaction to Rizal – Personal question between them is ended.
(1) - According to L. Spittael his full name is Juan Lardet
Details
1893
March
31
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
All his letters are unanswered -"Have they been eaten by the array1 or have they forbidden you to write me?" (Fragment of a letter)
1 White ants. Here used metaphorically. 2 He alludes to the Spaniards. The rest of the letter is all of a scientific character and at the end Blumentritt asks Rizal if he could send him some German books, censored beforehand by some Jesuits. (Retana) This letter was not delivered to Rizal. See the letter of Captain Sitges to General Blanco of 8 June 1893 in Epistolario Rizalino (Manila 1936) IV, p. 164.
Details
1893
April
4
Philippines
Dapitan
Pastells
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Fr. Pablo Pastells
Rizal’s opinion of Mgr. Bougand’s book – Reiterates his concept of God, his belief in revelation, and his attitude toward miracles.
[01] Further beyond. [02] "The heavens proclaim the glory of the Lord and the firmament announces the work of his hands." [Psalm 19:1 – rly] [03] "O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me." Luke 22:42. [04] "Today shalt thou be with me." Luke 23:43.
Details
1893
April
5
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
No more fish net -- Congratulations to Alfredo -- In good health though earning little -- He misses nothing except the family and his books -- Gift of jars and mangoes -- His sister should not work too hard and should remember him also -- His trees are bearing fruit.
(1) Pahó (Mangitera longipes Griff.) is a variety of mangoes. It is tiny with a pleasant aroma and generally used for salad and pickles.
Details
1893
April
28
Philippines
Manila
Pastells
Fr. Pablo Pastells
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Part 2 of letter where Father Pastells discusses Rizal’s religious views. This letter is very long and because of the limitation of the database technology cannot be accomodated in one file, so the rest first part of the letter is in a separate file
[01] "There is no power but of God . . ." Romans 13:1. [02] Who is this who is confusing words in conversation with the inexperienced . . . Where was he when they placed the foundations of the earth . . . Job 38:2,4. [03] The pen of my clerk writing swiftly my language . . . [04] Supernatural revelation, according to the faith of the universal Church, is contained in written books and unwritten traditions. [05] The books of the Old and New Testaments, complete in all their parts, are placed in the recent and former decree of the same Council. Those of the Vulgate, Latin version, must be received as sacred and canonical. The Church holds them as sacred and canonical, not because they have been arranged by human diligence and therefore approved upon its authority nor because they were inspired by the Holy Ghost. Their Author is God and they were delivered to the Church itself as such. [06] "If thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments." Matthew 19:17. [07] One does not desire what one does not know. [08] By Thomas a Kempis. "I stand in need of Thy grace and of great race, in order to overcome nature, always prone to evil from its youth.
Details
1893
April
28
Philippines
Manila
Pastells
Fr. Pablo Pastells
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Father Pastells discusses Rizal’s religious views. This letter is very long and because of the limitation of the database technology cannot be accomodated in one file, so the rest of the letter is in part 2
[01] "There is no power but of God . . ." Romans 13:1. [02] Who is this who is confusing words in conversation with the inexperienced . . . Where was he when they placed the foundations of the earth . . . Job 38:2,4. [03] The pen of my clerk writing swiftly my language . . . [04] Supernatural revelation, according to the faith of the universal Church, is contained in written books and unwritten traditions. [05] The books of the Old and New Testaments, complete in all their parts, are placed in the recent and former decree of the same Council. Those of the Vulgate, Latin version, must be received as sacred and canonical. The Church holds them as sacred and canonical, not because they have been arranged by human diligence and therefore approved upon its authority nor because they were inspired by the Holy Ghost. Their Author is God and they were delivered to the Church itself as such. [06] "If thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments." Matthew 19:17. [07] One does not desire what one does not know. [08] By Thomas a Kempis. "I stand in need of Thy grace and of great race, in order to overcome nature, always prone to evil from its youth.
Details
1893
May
3
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal's letter, a cause for joy - He would send him books - Greetings of the Klutschacks - Dr. Czepelack dies - Mrs. A. B. Meyer admires Rizal's The Triumph o f Death over Life - The European linguists take interest in the illustrious deportee - He should prepare a Tagalog grammar - Blumentritt gave the names of missionaries to some Mindanao rivers.

Details
1893
May
3
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Justo, mistaken for Rizal's brother was seized -- Pay Mr. Carnicero for his board -- If he declines it, give him an equivalent gift.

Details
1893
June

Philippines
Dapitan
Pastells
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Fr. Pablo Pastells
Note: This letter was unknown to the Epistolario Rizalino and its subsequent translation into English. This letter is taken from Fr. Raul Bonoan’s translation who discovered it. Rizal asks that he and Fr. Pastells end their correspondence. June 1 will be given to enable the database to retrieve it.

Details
1893
June
8
Philippines
Dapitan
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dr. Adolph B. Meyer
Despite his lack of freedom Rizal is willing to prepare scientific specimens. -- Will Dr. Schadenberg accept any kind of animals, reptiles, and skulls? -- Memories of Paris.
[01] Later Rizal was granted greater freedom and the use of a rifle with which he used to hunt in the area around Dapitan.
Details
1893
June
8
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
A cane as gift to Carnicero -- The accident of his brother -- A tiny branch hit his eye also -- The trip of his mother and brothers.

Details
1893
June
30
Philippines
Manila
Family
Silvester Ubaldo
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
About Rizal in Brussels -- Papers on dispossession -- That Rizal take an active interest in the case -- The Calamba people take possession of their lands by force -- They refuse to pay the canon.

Details
1893
July
19
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Names of the native races of the Philippines - The ethnographic list would not be confiscated - Rizal's article on Tagalog orthography is sent to European orientalists -.Mythological dictionary – The grammar of the Tiruray language

Details
1893
August
1
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
If his mother would visit him -- His house in a beautiful place -- Lacking only one who knows how to cook well -- Another prescription -- In August Rizal performed many surgical operations with pay.

Details
1893
August
29
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Antonio López
Rizal's family -- If they like the lands, they will write to their friends to come -- Waiting for his father -- His lands have lanzon trees.

Details
1893
September
15
U K
London
Others
Dr. Reinhold Rost
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Happy times with Rizal that will never return – His wife’s health is declining – Home news – Dr. Bezold with his cuneiform tablets – Mr. Rost in forced retirement – He offers to send Rizal books – His interest in dictionaries and grammars of the Bagobo, Manobo, and Moro-Magindanao languages – book on the Tiruray. The original letter is in English.
[01] Dr. Reinhold Rost was a preeminent British linguist of that day.
Details
1893
October
15
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizall
Nothing about politics that might embarrass him - He writes him to let him now that he is still alive and to show him their esteem of him - Dr. Rost, weakened by influenza, takes interest in Rizal - Dr. Jagor asked him for information about Rizal - Memory of his visit - Tempi pássati! - His notes on the Ilongots.
(1) Past times! (2) El Comercio, a Manila periodical.
Details
1893
October
24
Philippines
Dapitan
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dr. Reinhold Rost
Rizal sends a collection of reptiles and rare animals – The larger zoological collection destroyed by rats – Are the skeletons of mammals to be mounted or to be joined? -- Rizal has a collection of sea shells, 200 species.
[01] Dr. Adolph B. Meyer of Berlin was a noted European scholar.
Details
1893
October
25
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Congratulations on the arrival of an addition to the family -- Christmas lanterns -- "Nanay and Trining are satisfied with my land." -- "Here we have no civil guards, nor neighbors, nor gossip." Ten pesos for a Christmas lottery ticket.

Details
1893
October
25
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Saturnina
Congratulations on her happy delivery -- He invites her to Dapitan to trade in clothes, jewels, and abaca.

Details
1893
October
26
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Josefa Rizal
A good student of English -- Invites her to Dapitan -- "Our little house is between beautiful mountains" -- A lottery ticket -- Grammatical correction -- Wishes to see his father.

Details
1893
November
20
Philippines
Dapitan
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dr. Reinhold Rost
Rizal gives a list of specimens he had already sent – In exchange he would like some books.

Details
1893
December
19
Philippines
Dapitan
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
A poet's dream among the mists of the Rhine - Poor wing less butterfly dreaming of flowers and the pure atmosphere of other regions - From the present evil much future good will be gathered - A flower grows in the mire - From my present misfortune, I will get something good some day - I believe I have the seed - Specimen of natural history lost in the sinking of the Normandy - The Tagalog grammar is finished - His life in Dapitan - The impostor Pablo Mercado.

Details
1893
December
20


Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Alfredo Hidalgo
Encouraging his nephew in his studies -- A little mistake in expression -- Life is an eternal struggle with a smile on the lips and tears in the heart.
LETTER HAS NO DATE BUT RLY GROUPS THIS WITH THE 1893 LETTERS
Details
1893
December
20
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Pablo Mercado carries out a friar intrigue -- Revelations -- Letters and other writings of Rizal to embarrass him -- Detention of the imposter -- Rizal's helpers: Edjawan and Agapay.

Details
1894




Reformer
Julio Llorente
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Llorente sends Rizal a card introducing Mr. Bracken from Hong Kong.

Details
1894
January
5
U K
London
Others
Dr. Reinhold Rost
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal's letter made the Rost family happy - He asks Rizal to send articles to the Asiatic Society of Singapore and other scientific societies - Books on Mindanao dialects - An English-Sulu-Malayan vocabulary. The original letter is in English.

Details
1894
February

Philippines
Dapitan
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Governor-General Blanco
Rizal requests the Government to lift up his banishment or submit his case to the decision of the courts – His innocence Victim of injustice - His pathetic situation.
[01] This unfinished petition of Rizal, addressed to General Blanco, bears no date; but by the first phrases "Since more than a year and a half ago that I have been banished to this district by order of your predecessor." it can be gathered that it was written by Rizal in Dapitan about the beginning of February 1894, for the date of his departure to that place was 7 July 1892. (Editor of the Epistolario.)
Details
1894
February
4
Germany
Berlin
Others
Wilhelm Joest
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Greetings from friends in Germany and Dr. Baesler - Asks Rizal's opinion on an ethnographic object from Mindanao - He sends him a photograph of a bamboo case of a Moro datu -Was it used to send written messages? - None like it in European museums.

Details
1894
February
13
Philippines
Dapitan
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Governor-General Blanco
Unjustly exiled to Dapitan almost two years ago by order of Despujol without any trial - He was not given an opportunity to defend himself - Rizal asks for trial - In a fair trial Rizal believes he can prove his innocence.
[01] Ramon Blanco y Erenas was the Governor of the Philippines from 1893 to 1896. [02] Governor-General Eulogio Despujol. Note: This seems to be the finished draft of Rizal’s petition to the Governor General. The preceding one, No. 116 may be the first draft.
Details
1894
February
14
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Without letters or news -- Application for liberty borne by his brother-in-law -- Tatay (Father) ought to present it on behalf of his son -- House plan -- Consult M. Salvador's father about its cost.
(1) Rizal's petition for his freedom. In it he relates that he has been deprived of it without due process of law, without trial and for two years reduced to inactivity after having finished a costly medical course. See Epistolario Rizalino, IV, 193-194. (2) Moises Salvador.
Details
1894
March
10
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
His petition unanswered -- Ordering a book on the diseases of the ears -- Much success through little money -- Few patients go away without being cured -- Rizal will represent an association of abaca growers.

Details
1894
March
13
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
All well -- Rizal is missing only his books -- His lands dotted with little hospital-houses -- With very many patients -- Are letters lost in the mail?
(1) An alkaloid, C11H16N2O2, extracted from the leaves of the jaborandi plant and used in medicine to stimulate sweating or to contract the pupil of the eye.
Details
1894
April
6
France
Paris
Reformer
Valentin Ventura
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Bill of landing of a parcel sent to Rizal by the firm Gendre of Paris via the Messageries Maritimes.

Details
1894
April
10
Philippines
Dapitan
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dr. Adolph B. Meyer
Gift of books by famous authors received from Dr. Meyer - Zoological specimens for Heinszen - Another box of desiccated insects and animals - Do you want ethnological collect­ions?" Rizal says all the specimens he can send him will not be enough to pay for the books he has received.
Note: See Letter No. 112 (Rizal requests books from Dr. Meyer. [01] Hoare, Cecil Arthur. Basil Danilewsky: 1852-1939 (London: The Royal Society of Tropical Medical Hygene, 1939. [The only biography on Danilewski] Basil Danilewsky was a pioneer researcher on the subject of malaria parasites in birds.
Details
1894
April
18
France
Paris
Others
A. Lucas & Company
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal receives a business letter from Paris - Remittance to Rizal through the Messageries Maritimes of lenses, suture needles, and price list of artificial eyes, chromatophotometer, and Hacket microscopes.

Details
1894
April
24
Germany
Stuttgart
Others
S. Knüttel
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal is so well-known as a scientist among European scholars that his name was given to Mr. Knüttel - he is asked to send articles on volcanoes in Mindanao, Luzon, and Bisayas.

Details
1894
May
9
Philippines
Dapitan
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dr. Adolph B. Meyer
Remittance of a collection of butterflies and coleopteran [an order of beetles - rly] – Part of it is for Mr. Keihl of Prague - Reptiles and fishes - Bamboo box made by Subanos.

Details
1894
June
5
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
The governor general has not replied -- A reminder of his request -- Abaca agency in Manila -- Rizal's business transactions -- Majority of his numerous patients are poor -- He earns something but not enough for the work done -- Tagalog dictionary.
(1) A unit of weight about 133 pounds (60 kilograms), used in various countries of Southeast Asia.
Details
1894
July
4
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Eyeglasses or lenses for cataract -- Rizal in business partnership with a man in Dapitan -- Invites his sister to engage in the abaca business -- He lets his family decide his return -- "If with my specialty I can earn more there, I will return to Manila." -- Operated on his mother for cataracts.

Details
1894
July
16
Germany
Stuttgart
Others
S. Knüttel
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Requesting information on volcanic eruptions - or signs of activity, such as earthquake or clouds of smoke of some volcano – Eagerly seeking Rizal's collaboration.

Details
1894
July
18


Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
POST CARD

Details
1894
July
31
Philippines
Dapitan
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Condolence to the Blumentritt family - Rizal, abaca merchant - Teaching the people of Dapitan to revive their industries - Copy of Chau Ju-Kua's account of the Philippines? - He will publish his Tagalog Grammar as soon as he is free - He is learning Bisayan and teaching Dapitan boys - And Miss Loleng? - I can still see her running after us with her schoolbag, greeting us with her little hand and smiling with her eyes." - Rizal writes in different languages in order not to forget them - A mathematics book. - The path in the middle of a dark forest.
(1) The following three paragraphs are in English. (2) It refers to the travel account of the Chinese geographer Chau Ju-Kua in his book Chu-fan-tse in the last quarter of the XII century, in which he describes also the Philippine Archipelago under the name Ma-yi among the countries in the Far East visited by him. (3) Could it be the Malagasi of Madagascar? (4) Dr. Renward Brandstetter of Lucerne, distinguished student of the Malayans. (5) This paragraph is in French. (6) From Dante Alighieri's La Divina Commedia, Canto I, stanza 1: Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita mi ritrovai per una selva oscura, ché la diritta via era smarrita. (In the middle of the journey of our life I found myself in a dark wood, where the straight way was lost.) (7) In Rizal's English
Details
1894
July
31
Philippines
Dapitan
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dr. Adolph B. Meyer
Rizal congratulates Dr. Meyer on his excellent article on the Negritos - Birds and other animals - Would like a mathematics book in French in exchange - Study of the Subanos, Moros, and mountain tribes - Anthropometric data - Case of instruments of craniometry - Thanks for mentioning him in an ethnographic work - the Tagalog grammar is finished - Comparative' dictionary of dialects - Friend Mr. Kunstscherff – Explanation of the bamboo case of Joest.

Details
1894
August
14
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Blumentritt goes on excursions to the mountains or bathes in the Elbe-His wife is like the Hausfrau of Schiller - Fritz is promising-Loleng is a good cook and Konrad will study Latin-Prof. Kern affirms that the titles dato, gat, and hari are of Malayan on in, only ladya is Sanskrit- Geographical dictionary of Mindanao.
1 Free translation: Inside the house rules the modest spouse and fecund mother; and she orders all her folks prudently; and she teaches the girls and curbs the son; and her industrious hand moves solicitously, and turns around and augments with order her income and fills with jewels the fragrant chest; and she spins the thread with the noisy spindle; and she stores up in cabinets that fancy prepared the splendid wool, the snowy linen; and she ventures to give more lustre to so much treasure and she never rests. 2 The Superior Finishing School for Girls.
Details
1894
August
17
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
POST CARD

Details
1894
August
29
Philippines
Dapitan
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Your father, that good old man who sat with us at your table! - Absorbed in too many occupations - "At times my head buzzes" - Commercial company founded by Rizal - Teaches the Mindanao folks how to engage in trading to free themselves from the Chinese businessmen.

Details
1894
September
26
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Subscription to La Oceanía -- Will not write any more to the governor general. -- He is engaged in business with a capital he has earned from his medical practice -- He deplores the misfortunes of his brothers at Kalamba -- "If I could monopolize all the troubles and losses and leave to you all the joys and profits, I would do it with pleasure."
(1) Rizal won one-third of the lottery prize of 20,000 pesos, which he divided between his parents and his sisters. (2) In Spanish: cañamo. (3) He alludes to the passionate shooting by Juan of his wife and mother-in-law and the wounding of his brother-in-law Felix in 1892. A crime de passion, it was a celebrated case. A French court acquitted Luna. (4) Solitaire is a game of cards played alone.
Details
1894
October
26
Philippines
Dapitan
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dr. Adolph B. Meyer
List of butterflies collected by Rizal in Dapitan for Dr. Adolph B. Meyer, 26 October 1894.

Details
1894
November
3
Czechkoslovakia
Prague
Others
Napoleon M. Keihl
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal's admirer - Calls him "noble representative of colonial Spain" - Asks Rizal for Mindanao butterflies - Two nets for catching Lepidoptera - Will write on Mindanao fauna.

Details
1894
November
4
Czechkoslovakia
Prague
Others
Napoleon M. Keihl
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Small net for catching butterflies are sent under separate cover.

Details
1894
November
17
Philippines
Manila
Reformer
Juan Luna
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Acquitted, Luna returns to his homeland – painted in Bilbao pictures ordered by Spanish personages – Wondering about the world he has become a bit of a philosopher at Manila – Called on Rizal’s family – Vicissitudes and misfortunes – Rizal is enough of a philosopher to understand what destiny is.
(1) Accused of killing his wife and mother-in-law, he was acquitted by the court.
Details
1894
November
21


Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo
Rizal spoke with His Excellency at Dapitan --He promised to transfer him either to Ilocos or La Unión.
(1) Doroteo José
Details
1894
November
21
Philippines
Dapitan
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dr. Adolph B. Meyer
Rizal sends Dr. Meyer birds and other animals and a Subano knife - New species of butterflies - He says he may be transferred to Ilocos or La Union.
[01] Subano – A tribal group in Mindanao. [02] Rizal and his students would go into the jungles to collect specimens. His teaching methods of learning by doing are advanced not only for his day but ours. [03] Governor General Blanco did not fulfill his promise.
Details
1894
December
7
U K
London
Others
Dr. Reinhold Rost
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Glad to have tidings of Rizal - Has corresponded with Retana and reviewed his publications -- At 73 he has to work to add something to his meager pension - Asks Rizal to write on the dialects spoken in Mindanao for publication in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. The original letter is in English.

Details
1894
December
18
Philippines
Dapitan
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
José Ma. Basa
The sending of his medical books – And his English and German dictionaries – His transfer to Ilocos or La Unión – These are difficulties in granting him his freedom – Dapitan is very poor, very poor – Lack of medicine and instruments – Very regrettable conditions that he is unable to remedy.

Details
1895


Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Teodora Alonso
Recommending Miss Josephine L. Tauffer to his mother -- That she gave her hospitality and treated her like a daughter, as an esteemed and dear person to Rizal.
(1) This is the Irish young woman who accompanied Mr. Tauffer of Hong Kong to Dapitan, seeing Rizal's services as an ophthalmologist. She also called herself Josephine Bracken. (2) That is, the governor general.
Details
1895


Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Trinidad Rizal
Invites his sisters to take a vacation in Dapitan -- Engage in some business that will distract you and compensate you for your traveling expenses -- The dam is already high but the work is stopped for lack of lime -- A rich woman who pretended to be poor.
LETTER HAS NO DATE BUT GROUPS THIS WITH THE 1895 LETTERS Nelly Boustead is not in Brussels but in Paris Check Episolario (1) Among these boys were Elum, Rómulo Amat, José Aseniero, José Dalman, Aniceto Bahamonde, Filomeno Acopiado, Melchor Taladua, Capalino Gallemet, José Caangcan, Lucas Adasa, Marcial Borromeo, Marcelino Galleposo, and Adolfo Tantico. (2) Puence (Prudencio) and (Mauricio) are sons of his sister María, the wife of Daniel Cruz. (3) Pastora is Rizal's laundry woman. (4) He is referring to Miss Nelly Boustead of Brussels. (5) Mr. Higino Francisco, a distant relative of Rizal and active participant in the patriotic movement. NHI list this letter as April 1895
Details
1895
January
15
Philippines
Dapitan
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dr. Adolph B. Meyer
Remittance of another zoological collection - The duplicates are for Dr. K. M. Heller - With so many patients he has no time to attend to remittances.

Details
1895
January
15
Philippines
Dapitan
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Mrs. Teodora Alonso returns to Manila - Rizal losing hope of getting out of his exile - Ma-yi is more interesting to Rizal because he lives in Ka-ma-yen - He does not approve the geographical names p- If Mr. Hirth had given the Chinese charac¬ters in which the names of the towns were written, Rizal could decipher them with the aid of the local Chinese - Enlarging his Studies on the Tagalog Language - Laudatory opinion on the Blumentritt children - Recollections of happy days in Leitmeritz.

Details
1895
February
5
Germany
Dresden
Others
Dr. K. M. Heller
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
On the remittance of insects - Some spoiled by moths - New species of beetle sent to Rizal - Atonia ochroplagiata - One new variety among the 13 beetles - Rewarding result for science.

Details
1895
March
7
Czechkoslovakia
Prague
Others
Napoleon M. Keihl
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Another copy of Fauna de Nías - That the boys of Rizal collect insects - Locusts, beetles, blow-flies – Will publish his impressions of his trip in Spain.
[01] Rhopalocera is a division of Lepidoptera (insects and moths) including all the butterflies. They differ from other Lepidoptera in having club-shaped antennas.
Details
1895
March
13
Philippines
Dapitan
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal's pupils in Dapitan offer to work in his house - Good teachers teach so that children may learn and not waste their time - A Malayan grammar and a book for collectors of natural objects -Why is the Tagalog i changed into o in Bisayan? - Curious way of the formation of the present tense in Tagalog - He will study the phonetic changes of other dialects to resolve the problem of Philippine languages - A comparative philology of Malayan-Polynesian languages.

Details
1895
March
14
Philippines
Dapitan
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dr. Adolph B. Meyer
Little difference between the wild boar and the domesticated hog - Rizal is very sorry he can no longer send specimens – He is very busy with so many patients - Possible change of his place of deportation.
[01] The following four paragraphs are in German, the rest in French. The portion in German is not found in the Spanish Epistolario Rizalino, vol. IV, pp. 234-235.
Details
1895
March
14
Philippines
Dapitan
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mr. Mariano Pinili
The machine will arrive from America within two months.

Details
1895
March
15
Philippines
Dapitan
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dr. Lorenzo Marquez
Present of books on carpentry and wheel have been taken as revolutionary books – He will engage in farming – His clientele in Dapitan is poor – They propose to him to escape – But Rizal does not want to be called “a runaway.”

Details
1895
April

Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Narcisa Rizal
Miss Josephine is grateful for the hospitality -- Rizal decides that she remain in Dapitan -- The "sweet stranger" is so busy she cannot dry fish or make pickles.
(1) Miss B. as well as Miss J. are the same Miss Josephine Bracken, or Tauffer. (2) Tonino is Mr. Antonino López, husband of his sister Narcisa 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 are their children.
Details
1895
April
10
Philippines
Dapitan
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Philological explanation of the term Mindanao -Adoption of the new Tagalog orthography -Works of immortal fame - Rizal taking care of patients and planting -- Studying Malay - Tagalog could not have been derived from Malay - Despite many common words - A grammar, a monument to his native tongue.
1 Light that does not shine. 2 This is relatively speaking. A cursory glance at the Rizaliana Bibliography is enough to show that if Rizal did not write much during his deportation, nevertheless what he produced in Mindanao' was not little. (Retana)
Details
1895
April
10
Philippines
Dapitan
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
José Ma. Basa
He is thinking of colonizing Ponot on the coast – As he will be in the forest, he is asking for his library – In Ponot one can have four or five thousand cattle and 40,000 coconut trees.

Details
1895
April
26
U K
London
Others
Dr. Reinhold Rost
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Fond memory of Rizal - The old librarian is suffering for his compulsory retirement - Encouraging the hero in his linguistic works - The Rost Collection on Philippine dialects - These are derived from the Tagalog or the Bisaya - The Malagasy language. The original letter 'is in English.

Details
1895
May
8
Philippines
Dapitan
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Governor-General Blanco
Rizal requests his transfer to Spain - In order to restore his broken health - The departure of [Juan] Sitges contributes to this resolution - Sitges does not consider him anti-Spaniard - The government should not deny him the opportunity to earn his livelihood.
[01] Permission was granted about three months letter. See Letter # 137 (letter following). [02] According to Wenceslao E. Retana the letter ends by soliciting contributions for Rizal to take care of his subsistence until he is indefinitely established in some place and he can devote himself to the practice of his profession.
Details
1895
May
9
Philippines
Dapitan
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Anacleto del Rosario, Rizal's classmate, has died - A fervent Catholic, "he discussed nothing; I discussed everything and I doubted." - He represented my student friendship; Blumentritt, my present friendship of free inquiry." - ". . . it matters little to me if they lock me up in Santiago or in Santo Domingo. My spirit will always be free." - "I have reached with my limited strength the highest point which I can attain and I am afraid that if they would let me walk further, I may descend more rapidly than I have climbed up." - The yellow color of the eyes of the Negritos.
1 It is God's providence that the government has eliminated me: it makes my name famous. 2That is, "I fear the Greeks even when they bring gifts." 3 The fulfillment of her wishes.
Details
1895
May
9
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Trinidad Rizal
He asks everybody to have more confidence in him -- He's in the hands of God -- Let us do our duty, what is right, and let God to the rest -- Let us think well of our fellowmen.
(1) Pasalan is the popular Tagalog name for a very sturdy rattan found in Philippine forests. It is used for walking sticks. (2) He was a Chinese grocery merchant who had a store on Nueva Street, Binondo, and who had a case in court concerning a loan guaranteed by Mrs. Concepción (Concha) Leyba that he could not pay or did not want to pay. (Note: OF Dr. Leoncio López Rizal, nephew of Rizal. (3) He refers to the beautiful poem mi retiro that tells of his life at Dapitan. (4) Vicente Leyba, sister of Concepción (Concha) Leyba.
Details
1895
June
1
Philippines
Manila
Others
Governor-General Blanco
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Blanco grants authorization to cultivate lands for the establishment of an agricultural colony near the gulf of Sindangan.
[01] Captain Carnicero was succeeded by Captain Juan Sitges on May 4, 1893 as the Dapitan Commandant.
Details
1895
June
6
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
María Mercado
Asks his nephew Moris to speak English -- Reports uncollected debts.

Details
1895
June
6
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Trinidad Rizal
He will send her a black pearl -- If Father would come -- The fruit trees are in bloom -- Miss Josephine postpones her trip to Manila.
(1) On account of old age his father never went to Dapitan.
Details
1895
July
1
Germany
Dresden
Others
Dr. Adolph B. Meyer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
NOTE: This letter found in the English translation of the Epistolario is out of order relative to the date of writing and has therefore been placed prior to letter # 138.

Details
1895
July
2
Czechkoslovakia
Prague
Others
Napoleon M. Keihl
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
His trip and misadventures in Spain – They broke his camera – Asks for more butterflies – Their technical names.

Details
1895
July
4
Philippines
Dapitan
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Blumentritt's photograph - Rizal teaching boys Spanish, English, arithmetic, and geometry and in payment they work for him - Dr. Rost thinks that the dialects here can be grouped into two: Bisayo and Tagalog. - Rizal thinks that these two languages can be fused into one through phonetical changes - Intelligence is inherited, according to Rizal - The intelligent races today are so after a long hereditary process.

Details
1895
July
4
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Teodora Alonso
50 pesos of his savings for his mother to buy what she likes -- Rizal praises Miss Bracken -- His father should not worry about him -- He's in the hands of God -- He asks for seeds -- His fruit trees are flourishing.

Details
1895
July
31
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
María Mercado
He orders petroleum, flour, soap, etc. -- He may change his residence

Details
1895
August
9
U K
London
Others
Dr. Reinhold Rost
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Feodor Jagor, Ferdinand Blumentritt, and Reinhold Rost fondly remember Rizal – the librarian, already elderly and in ill health is anxious to see Rizal before he dies. – He is glad that Rizal is studying Malya – Awaits his linguistic essays. Note: the original letter is in English.

Details
1895
August
28
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
María Mercado
Treatment for his nephew, Moris -- If his parents join him at Dapitan, he would remain there to engage in farming.
(1) Encarnacion
Details
1895
September
25
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
María Mercado
His sister Maria's debtors have not paid -- Orders fishhooks -- Will send friends walking sticks as souvenirs.

Details
1895
September
25
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Teodora Alonso
He encourages his mother to buy a lot in Meisik, Manila -- He asks for family data for a genealogy.
(1) A lot on Alvarado Street, near Soler and Reina Regente Streets. (2) This genealogical tree made by him at Dapitan was published for the first time by Austin Craig in Lineage, Life, and Labors of J. Rizal, Manila, 19 . . .
Details
1895
October
20
Philippines
Dapitan
Reformer
S. Jugo Vidal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
A fellow reformist in Spain introduces an eye patient to Rizal – His sister, treated by Rizal, and has fully recovered.

Details
1895
October
22
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Teodora Alonso
Rizal sends his mother his poem Mi Retiro -- Also Himno a Talisay written for his pupils -- He vows not to buy anything from the local Chinese stores -- Sends honey and fruits to his mother -- Sitjes, former Dapitan politico-Military Commander.
(1) The poem Mi Retiro.
Details
1895
October
25
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
María Mercado
He asks his family not to urge patients to go to him -- He is willing to teach his nephews -- Sends honey and fruits to his family.

Details
1895
November
16
Philippines
Dapitan
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Benito Francia
An article on the Practicas de los curanderos (Practices of the [native? –rly] Healers) requested by the Chief of Welfare and Health - Rizal indignantly rejects his statement describing his ideas as "unfortunate separatist ideas."

Details
1895
November
20
Philippines
Dapitan
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Blumentritt masters the Spanish language-What elegance in his expression! - Rizal is forgetting little by little the German lie has learned - Oh, those rustic excursions in Germany! - Wander through the forests, gather strawberries, drink Rhine wine, eat heartily, and sleep under the pine trees….Rizal studies Malay and writes on the bewitched - Tagalog Versification, at the Ethnographic Society of Berlin - A wooden machine for making bricks - Will apply for post of military physician in Cuba - Busy with philological works.

Details
1895
November
21
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
María Mercado
for toothache -- Would like Miss Bracken to stay -- Carpentry is his diversion.

Details
1895
November
21
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Teodora Alonso
He does not want his mother to appeal to the governor general for his freedom -- He has written him again -- He has applied for enlistment in the army as a physician -- Sends his parents some money -- The new politico -- Military commander.
(1) See Epistolario Rizalino, IV, 266. (2) A Spanish weight of 25 pounds or 11.5 kilos. (3) Captain Rafael Morales, cultured gentleman who spoke several languages; but he held the post for only a short time, for he was promoted to major. Ricardo Carnicero, the same one who was there in 1892, took his place.
Details
1895
December

Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
New Year's Greetings

Details
1895
December
16
Philippines
Dapitan
Reformer
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mr. Pedro A. Paterno
Condolences for the death of Dr. Antonio Paterno – Minong and Rizal were such good friends – It is sad to live on memories – How many friends of one’s youth have passed away!
(1) The old name of Malabon, then a fishing village north of Manila. (2) Dr. Maximino Paterno, brother of Pedro A. Paterno and Antonio Paterno. (3) Thomas Moore (1779-1852), an Irish poet. (4) The quoted text is a portion of the poem, “Oft in the Stilly [= Silent - rly] Night.” It is also published under the title, “The Light of Other Days.” [A few deviations from the original text may indicate that Rizal is quoting from memory - rly] (5) Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer (1836 – 1870), a Spanish romantic poet.
Details
1895
December
17
Philippines
Dapitan
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Governor-General Blanco
He offers to serve in the Cuban campaign of the Spanish American War as a physician in the Spanish army.

Details
1895
December
18
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
María Mercado
Miss Josephine's regards and Christmas greetings -- Rizal sends some affectionate lines in English to his nephew Moris.
(1) Columbia, Lohia, and Pastora were girls who served at Rizal's house at Dapitan.
Details
1895
December
18
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Lucía Mercado
The progress of the education of his nieces is the fruit of the troubles in Calamba.
(1) He refers to her eviction by the Hacienda de Calamba.
Details
1895
December
18
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Teodora Alonso
Allaying his parents' fears about his proposed service in Cuba -- He would welcome an inexpensive bicycle -- He sends money to his parents -- Presents to his family -- He has many patients but few pay.

Details
1896


Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Lucía Mercado
The nephews are advancing in their studies -- Now they write to their mother without dictation -- They are studying fractions and they speak English -- Osio can swim until 30 braces -- Tanis dives like an eel -- And can lift up a twenty-five pound weight.
(1) Delfina and Concha are daughters of his sister Lucia. (2) A brother of Rizal's mother.
Details
1896
January
15
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Trinidad Rizal
Order for household equipment -- Sends money for the bicycle -- Present of fish, cacao, and music books from Miss Josephine -- Good Dapitan Christmas -- "My greatest happiness would be to have you all by my side." -- They should think it over before they join him -- Trining can live in the town and open a store -- Order list
(1) These are various kinds of noodles.
Details
1896
January
15
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Teodora Alonso
Rizal buys land -- He has spent his youth serving his country -- Now he wants to serve his parents -- Writes glowingly about his plans -- Josephine is good and meek.
(1) A cavan is 75 liters. (2) According to W. E. Retana in his biography of Rizal (p. 325), General Blanco granted him permission to establish the agricultural colony in a letter dated 1 June 1895.
Details
1896
February
12
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Lucía Mercado
Let them follow their respective vocations -- Moris, the same as before -- Teodosio wants to be a farmer -- "We cannot all be doctors" -- That some till the land -- Tan loves studying -- Miss Bracken likes them very much -- Rizal will teach them Spanish, English, arithmetic, and gymnastics

Details
1896
February
12
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
María Mercado
Reports the progress of her Moris in his studies -- Orders some provisions

Details
1896
February
14
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rost, the librarian, on his way to Canterbury to give a lecture, died of apoplexy - Orientalist science loses an industrious servant -- He called Rizal "a pearl of a man."

Details
1896
March
12
Philippines
Dapitan
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
María Mercado
He reports on María’s son, Moris
(1) A sturdy textile made of hemp.
Details
1896
April
5
Philippines
Dapitan
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Philological conversation with Blumentritt - Rizal treating patients from various parts of the Archipelago -The Mangianenschrift - Blumentritt comprehends the spirit of the Tagalogs - Before publishing his grammar (Rizal wants to be well steeped in Malay - And to make sure if it is the origin of Tagalog - He now speaks Bisayan - And studying Malayo -Polynesian languages -His ambition is to raise a monument to his native tongue- Correction of Tagalog translations by Rizal - On the g of Rizal which, according to Foy, is irreführend - On the W - Rizalian orthography adopted and its use is becoming general - On the etymology of Babailan and Lanaw - Meaning of Dapitan - Rizal sends three roses from his garden to the Blumentritt family:

Details
1896
April
9
Philippines
Dapitan
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal deplores the death of Dr. Rost - He was like a father to him and his house a home to Rizal - He died serving the cause of science - Affectionate phrases from Rizal - Rizal also complains that he cannot see those dear to him - If he did not believe in the immortality of the soul, he would invent it to be able to see Rost again.

Details
1896
April
25
Philippines
Manila
Family
Trinidad Rizal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
M. Rivera, a trusted friend, is going to pick up the ring and the boards for the dulang (1) offered by Rizal.
(1) Dulang is a dining table low enough for people seated on the floor to reach.
Details
1896
April
28
Philippines
Dapitan
Reformer
José Ma. Basa
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Mr. Mariano Rivera, bearer of a letter to Rizal.

Details
1896
May
13
Austria
Leitmeritz
Blumentritt
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Blumentritt, sick, awaits the warmth of summer - Bad weather in Leitmeritz with floods - A volume of the review Archivo with a mythological dictionary of the Philippines - Tagalog deities and beliefs compared with those of the other Malays - The Mindanao dictionary is not finished yet.

Details
1896
July
1
Philippines
Manila
Others
Governor-General Blanco
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Rizal is appointed to the Army in Cuba as a physician attached to the Military Health Corps.
[01] Related to this appointment of Rizal is a letter o Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor to Mr. José Basa which follows. [02] It was Ferdinand Blumentritt who suggested to Rizal that he apply as a physician in Cuba.
Details
1896
August
12


Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Narcisa Rizal
Request Miss Josephine to send him his vest, trousers, and more collars and cuffs and postage stamps -- Asks some delicacies -- That his nephews study English, taking advantage of Miss Josephine's stay at home.
Rizal was kept aboard the cruiser Castilla while waiting for the boat that would take him to Spain on account of the outbreak of hostilities between the Filipinos and the Spaniards. Only members of his family were allowed to visit him. As he wrote in his diary, the arrangement "disappointed me greatly, because it deprived me of the pleasure of visiting with my parents;" but he added, "What could I do except to follow orders?" (See Reminiscences and Travels of Rizal, Rizal Centennial Edition, 1961, Vol. I)
Details
1896
August
13
Philippines
Manila
Others
Josephine Bracken
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Miss Bracken complains of the treatment accorded her by Rizal's sisters because she is not married to him - Only his sister Narcisa and his father are kind to her. The original letter in English is published in Documentos Rizalinos, Manila, 1953, pp. 7-9. Miss Bracken’s letter was in ungramatical English and is reproduced exactly as she wrote it.

Details
1896
August
13
Philippines
Manila
Family
Narcisa Rizal
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
She is sending him all his orders -- Josephine is sad.

Details
1896
August
17
Philippines
Manila
Others
Josephine Bracken
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Miss Bracken tries to see the Governor General in behalf of Rizal - She has fifteen pupils - She is also studying piano - She remembers their life together in Dapitan. The original letter in English was published in Documentos Rizalinos, Manila, 1953, pp. 13-16.

Details
1896
August
19


Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Narcisa Rizal
Reiterates his order of certain delicacies to be sent to the Cruiser Castilla -- The officers treat Rizal well and he wants to compliment them -- His sister to calm his old parents -- Trust in God who watches over us all -- He has saved me from greater perils than war.

Details
1896
August
25


Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Narcisa Rizal
Grateful to his sister for her hospitality to Josephine -- But he would not want to abuse it -- A proof of fraternal love that Rizal will never forget -- But to avoid troubles it would be better that she take a little house near her sister's -- Orders his medical instruments and clothes

Details
1896
August
30
Philippines
Manila
Others
Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the Philippines
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
With two letters of introduction to the ministers of war and colonies.

Details
1896
September
2


Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Sisters
Persuasive requests and recommendations of Rizal to his family before his departure for Cuba -- May his brothers take good care of their old parents.

Details
1896
September
2


Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Teodora Alonso
Moving words of farewell of Rizal to his mother on leaving for Cuba -- "Take very good care of yourself and take care of my old father so that we may meet again." Wishes his family to stand united.
1) He refers to the first encounters between the Katipunan and the Spanish soldiers. See Teodoro A. Agoncillo, The Revolt of the Masses, Quezon City, 1956, chapter IX.
Details
1896
September
21
Philippines
Fort Santiago
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Teodora Alonso
Death aboard -- In charge of one patient -- Fine weather -- He is in good health.
(1) Luis Martinez Beaumont, husband to his aunt Concepción Leyba, who died on board a ship en route to Spain. (2) He was Domingo Carrió who died at sea five days after this letter was written, on 26 September, and dropped into the sea on the same day. (3) Don Pedro A. Paterno's brother-in-law, Don Manuel Piñeyro, a Spaniard. (4) The name of the alley on which was located the residence of his sister Narcisa, married to Antonio Lopez, where Josephine Bracken was staying.
Details
1896
September
27
Argentina
Baracas al Sud
Reformer
Francisco Villa-Abrille
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Suggestion of a nostalgic compatriot – Long live the Unitarian Republic of the Philippines! – News of the insurrection reached Argentina – He believes that Japan is called upon to liberate Oceana and the west coast of the Pacific from European domination – High hopes for an independent Philippines – News of Rizal’s arrest published in Argentine newspapers – He would like to be a signatory of the Philippine act of Independence.
(1) Francisco Roxas. He was executed by the Spaniards. (2) Juan Luna in a fit of jealousy shot his wife z Pardo de Tavera, sister of Drs. Felix Pardo de Tavera and T. H. Pardo de Tavera at Paris. Luna was acquitted by the French court.
Details
1896
September
28


Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Rizal en route to Spain to join the army in Cuba is arrested in his cabin for alleged complicity in the Philippine insurrection - Will be returned to Manila for trial - Tells Blumentritt what happened to him.

Details
1896
September
29
Argentina
Baracas al Sud
Reformer
Francisco Villa-Abrille
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Sends his adhesion to the General Committee of the Philippine Revolution through Rizal – Offers his services as notary public.
NOTE: Rizal did not receive this letter. In September of 1896 he was en route to Spain, aboard the boat Isla de Panay.
Details
1896
December

Philippines
Fort Santiago
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
My Family
Rizal bids his family farewell -- "It is better to die than to live suffering" -- How he wishes to be buried.
(1) This letter was among the Rizal documents presented to the Republic of the Philippines by Spain through her ministers of foreign affairs, Martin Artajo on 26 February 1953. It has no date, but it must have been written at Fort Santiago shortly before he was led to his execution on Bagumbayan, Manila. These documents are published in one volume, Documentos Rizalinos, Manila 1953, by the Philippine government. (2) Paang Bundok literally means foot of the mountain. It is the place in the north of Manila where are the North Cemetery, a municipal cemetery, and the Chinese Cemetery. Rizal was buried, not in a humble place in Paang Bundok, as he wished but in the Cemetery of Paco. On 30 December 1912, the Commission on the Rizal Monument, created by virtue of Law No. 243, transferred his remains to the base of the monuments erected on the Luneta, very near to the place where he was shot. NHI gives this letter a date of (1896?) and puts it at the end of December
Details
1896
December

Philippines
Fort Santiago
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Dear Parents and Brothers
Rizal would like to see the bravest members of his family before he dies.
NHI gives this letter a date of December 29, 1896
Details
1896
December
10
Philippines
Fort Santiago
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
To the Investigating Judge
Rizal inquires if he will be allowed to issue a manifesto to his countrymen concerning the use of his name in their agitation. Permission was granted him and he wrote the manifesto, but its publication was not allowed.

Details
1896
December
20
Philippines
Fort Santiage
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Luis Taviel de Andrade
What do you think of a consultation with a lawyer proposed by my sister? - Rizal, however, has confidence in the ability of Andrade.

Details
1896
December
25
Philippines
Fort Santiago
Others
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Luis Taviel de Andrade
Rizal requests an interview with his defender before appearing before the Plenary Court in the trial of his case.

Details
1896
December
29
Philippines
Fort Santiago
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Paciano
Last words to his brother Paciano: expressing sorrow that the whole weight of caring of the family and their old parents rests with him.
Paciano in Cavite received this letter in January 1897, as he had joined the Revolution after Governor General Polavieja signed the death sentence of his brother on 28 December 1896.
Details
1896
December
29
Philippines
Fort Santiago
Blumentritt
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt
Farewell of the Martyr to his favorite friend

Details
1896
December
30
Philippines
Fort Santiago
Family
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
Francisco Rizal Mercado
Last words to his parents asking for forgiveness for the pain he is causing them unwillingly! "To my very beloved mother"

Details

 

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