The Life and Works of
Dr. Jose P. Rizal

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The Life and Works of Dr. Jose P. Rizal - The Diary page
The Diary of Dr. Jose P. Rizal
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Memoirs of a Student in Manila Chapter 8
Chapter 8: Memoirs of a Student in Manila Chapter 8: In the publicartion "Reminiscences and Travels of Jose Rizal" this is not given a chapter number but is tiled "My First Reminiscence" - Gilbert Isaac
(34) This word is derived from the name of the first maker of that lamp, Quinquet, a Frenchman. Quinque refers to a petroleum lamp. (35) The utmost. (36) Globes were appliances made of crystal in which were placed the vessels containing oil for lighting. They are hung from the ceiling with iron chains.
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Unten den Linden
Unten den Linden - This may be an exercise in French composition or the draft of a letter. It is found in his notebook "Clinica Medica", in the Ayer Library at Chicago, USA. It is unsigned and has no addressee.

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Diary of Consuelo Ortiga y Ortiga
Diary of Consuelo Ortiga y Ortiga - These are extracts from the diary of Consuelo Ortiga y Peréz, daughter of Mr. Pablo Ortiga y Rey, Counselor of the Philippines, whose house at Madrid Rizal and other Filipinos frequented. The diary came from Mr. Eduardo de Lete, one of Rizal’s contemporaries who became the fiancée of Miss Ortiga.
* These are extracts from the diary of Consuelo Ortiga y Peréz, daughter of Mr. Pablo Ortiga y Rey, Counselor of the Philippines, whose house at Madrid Rizal and other Filipinos frequented. The diary came from Mr. Eduardo de Lete, one of Rizal’s contemporaries who became the fiancée of Miss Ortiga. [01] A bamboo joint cut off at one end. The cover is the same piece which has been cut off and fitted back. [02] Lola was a cousin of Consuelo Ortiga. [03] Antonio and Maximino Paterno. [04] A Filipino painter, scholar of the City of Manila, who died penniless at Alicante, abandoned by the City of Manila. A family of that capital city took care of him. (Note by E. de Lete.) [05] A card game. [06] They were some good girls but poor who accompanied us in our morning strolls through the gardens of the Retiro (A large park in Madrid) whom Rizal called “the exploitable.” (Lete’s note.) [07] This poem is entitled “To C.O. y P.” NOTE: It may be found in “Rizal’s Life and Writings” http://joserizal.info [08] A cousin or friend of Consuelo and daughter of the Spanish poet Marco. [09] A Catalan sculptor. [10] A Filipino young lady at manila. (Lete) [11] He had been in Spain and was recommended to Mr. Pablo Ortiga y Rey, Consuelo’s father. He died in Madrid. (Lete) [12] He died in Manila. (Lete) [13] I don’t know to which of the two brothers to which she referred; perhaps to Francisco. (Lete) [14] Eduardo de Lete. Lete’s comment: “My great and noble friend!” [15] Note of Eduardo de Lete: Here ends the intimate diary of Miss Consuelo Ortiga y Perez; I don’t know whether because of the formalization of our engagement – the reason why the Filipinos stopped gathering at the house of the Counselor of the Philippines, Mr. Pablo Ortiga y Rey, named by Rizal and companions, El Padre Eterno (The Eternal Father) – or because she lost the humor and she did not continue it. After the death of Don Pablo years later, his son Rafael went to the Philippines to fill a post. When his sister Consuelo was ready to leave for Manila, she received the news of his demise. She was left alone and abandoned in Madrid. A romantic girl deprived of her mother at an early age, possessing an education rare in those times, she saw all her love affairs crumble and all her illusions wither. She was very unfortunate, dying alone, sad, and abandoned, a victim of tuberculosis. An excellent and illustrious friend communicated to me this news when I went to Madrid as representative of a very important news agency of London on the occasion of the marriage of King Alfonso XIII in 1906. May she rest in peace.
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My Travels with Doctor Rizal by Maximo Viola
My Travels with Doctor Rizal by Maximo Viola
[01] A euphemism for houses of ill repute. [02] Professor Miguel Morayta, was a Spanish liberal who sympathized with Philippine aspirations and was elected president of the Asociación Hispano-Filipina that had been founded y the Filipinos at Madrid on 12 July 1888. In addition to publishing the Barcelona La Publicidad he was at one time a member of the Spanish parliament or Cortes. [03] During the Spanish regime, the Filipinos did not speak of Spain as a foreign country. Hence Rizal, who was on his way to another European country, was said to be going abroad. [04] Pansit is a favorite dish of Filipinos. It is made of noodles called bijon, made of rice, or mique, made of lour, with pork, shrimp, chicken, and other ingredients sautéed with garlic and onion. [05] Félix Ma. Roxas was a distinguished Filipino lawyer who served as mayor of Manila from 1905 to 1917. He died at the age of 72 on June of 1936. [06] He stayed at the Hotel de Paris, 37 Rue Maubeuge, from the 4th to the 10th December 1886. [07] The bill of the Central Hotel proves that Viola stayed there from 11 to 14 December. From the hotel he moved to a boarding house. [08] In Silesia, formerly an Austrian duchy. [09] Dr. Feodor Jagor, a wealthy Prussian scholar residing at Berlin, who enjoyed enviable fame in the European scientific world as well as in India. In 1891 he went to the Celebes and returned to Berlin at the age of 74 with new scientific discoveries. He died at Berlin in 1900. he was the author of Reisen in den Philippinen (Travels in the Philippines) Berlin, 1873, and “On the Natives of Naga, Luzon, Philippine Islands” published in the Journal of the Ethnological Society of London, 1870, vol. II, No. 2, pp. 170-175. [10] To what Dr. Viola says about their visit to Professor Blumentritt we can add what this illustrious Austrian wrote on 20 May 19111 to a friend of his at Manila. This letter was published in La Vanguardia on 1 July 1911 and among other things he said: Rizal had that novell (Noli me tángere) printed at the Lette Press, Lette being the name of a society or association whose purpose was to give bread to women, so that its compositors were not men but women. After the last copy had been printed, Rizal left Berlin to embark at Marseille to return to his country, accompanied by his intimate friend Dr. Máximo Viola y Sison. In the course of that trip he stopped at Dresden, Leitmeritz, Prague, Munich, and various cities of Switzerland. About the visit of Rizal to Leitmeritz I can furnish you with the following data: Mr. José Rizal and Mr. Máximo Viola arrived at Leitmeritz at 1:30 in the afternoon of 13 May 1887. I met them at the station and we went together to Hotel Krebs (or Crabs). After having been installed in their room, number 12, Rizal, Viola, and I went to my residence. We had a very pleasant time until 10:30 p.m. My wife felt the most pleasant satisfaction upon seeing that Austro-Bohemian dishes were enjoyed by our Filipino friends. The conversation was very animated and the impression was most pleasant. My children later became friends of our friends. The 14th May was a very cold day but it did not bother Rizal, who withstood the cold better than ourselves, children of the country. Rizal found out that on the afternoon of that day the board of directors of the Tourists’ Club (whose secretary I was) would hold a meeting, and he asked me permission to attend it, for he was very much interested in everything that was being done in Europe to attract tourists and to open the public roads that made picturesque spots of the country accessible. Rizal and Viiola received the desired invitation. The president of the club, José Krombholz, cordially greeted the Filipinos and at the same time begged them to pardon us for boasting so much of our landscape, poor and rachitic in comparison to the beautiful and exuberant vegetation of the Philippines with her majestic volcanoes and lands. Rizal replied in perfect German in the following tenor, the text of his speech, not having been preserved verbatim: “The vegetation of my native land is certainly richer and all its landscape variegated with brilliant colors; but this country of Bohemia is also beautiful for its simplicity and idyllic scenery. But what I admire among you is the love you have for your native land, the appreciation of her beauty, the intimate contact between man and nature. To the tourists here nature is the object of admiration and of a very special cult that serves to exalt the soul. When we are afflicted, our nerves are agitated, we cannot bear either the echo of the best music in the world or the consolation of friends or the distractions of social life. But as it happens in European countries, inhabited by Germanic peoples, accustomed to read the expression of nature, we find the best solace in the solitude of the forest, in gazing at the clouds that cross the space above, in admiring the beauty of the flowers, and in listening to the innocent song of the little birds. We forget our afflictions and troubles, the hand of the Creator caresses us, and on our return home, we feel refreshed, for nature has gladdened the formerly saddened soul. For this reason, I admire the activity of the members of the Tourists’ Club, because, instead of taking the traveler to the noisy life, to the bars and bright spots of the cities, they invite the man with a heart and soul to acquire new strength for the struggle of life to the bosom of nature, pure, sublime, and enchanting.” This speech aroused the greatest enthusiasm of the audience and was rewarded with an applause very rare among my very cold countrymen. On 15 May our Filipino friends visited the churches, the bishop’s residence and other important buildings of this city. We visited also my special friend, Dr. Carlos Czepelack, who, though immobilized by a partial paralysis, has wished to see Rizal and pay him his homage, because I had spoken to him much about Rizal and I had translated to him some salient chapters of the Noli. My friends were very much satisfied with the very affectionate reception they were given by the old parents of Czepelack. Rizal told me that friendly hospitality reminded him of Filipino customs. Naturally they dined with us. We visited the Island of Shooters whose gigantic trees greatly pleased Rizal. On 16 May Professor Robert Klutschack, a venerable naturalist, invited Rizal, Viola, and me to eat at his house. The dinner was held at the Hotel Krebs, for my friends Rizal and Viola had invited us to dine there with them. On the 16th, at 9:45 a.m. Rizal and Viola left by train for Prague. They were accompanied to the station by my whole family and Professor Klutschack. When the train started, my little daughter Loleng ran (like a butterfly, wrote Rizal) beside the coach greeting with her tiny hands the dear Filipino friends. The parting deeply moved us and tears moistened our eyes. [11] The author Dr. Viola, writing from memory in January 1913, that is 26 years after his travel, was not certain whether it was Ptolemy or Copernicus. As he says further on, he lost his travel notes during the 1896 Revolution. [12] The bill of Hotel Metropole of Vienna is preserved. It attests to the stay of the travelers Rizal and Viola from 20-24 of May. A postal card sent by Dr. Viola to his father affirms that they arrived at Vienna on that day, the 20th. [13] The bill of the Rheinscher Hof or Rhine Hotel in München (Munich) proves the travelers lodged there from the 26-30 May 1887. A paper napkin with the mark of Lowenbran-keller in München with a note that it was used on 29 May 1887 tells us that on that day the travelers drank beer thee. [14] The bill of Hotel Müller of Schaffhausen proves that they stayed there on the 2nd and 3rd June 1887. [15] A paper napkin with the stamp of Baversiche Bierhalle, Basel, and with a note that it was used on 3 May 1887 proves that Rizal and Viola had drunk beer at that place on the day mentioned. [16] Extant is a bill of the Schweizerhof of Berne.
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1872
November
1
Philippines
Manila

Memoirs of a Student in Manila - Chapter 3

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1878
October
28
Philippines
Manila

Memoirs of a Student in Manila - Chapter 2

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1878
September
11
Philippines
Manila

Memoirs of a Student in Manila - Chapter 1

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1879
April
7
Philippines
Kalamba

Memoirs of a Student in Manila - Chapter 4

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1879
December
1
Philippines
Manila

Memoirs of a Student in Manila - Chapter 5

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1881


Philippines
Manila

Memoirs of a Student in Manila - Chapter 7
No date - In the publicartion "Reminiscences and Travels of Jose Rizal" this is not given a chapter number but is found at the end of Chapter 6 - Gilbert Isaac
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1881
November
16
Philippines
Manila

Memoirs of a Student in Manila - Chapter 6

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1882
May
1
Philippines
Calamba
Trip to Spain - from Calamba to Manila
1 May Monday [01]
[01] This is a translation of the diary published in Unitas, Manila, October-December 1953, pp. 854-872. Obvious errors in the transcription have been corrected. [02] Light two-wheeled covered vehicles, usually horse-drawn, and more spacious than a calesa. [03] Mariano Herbosa [ 04] José M. Cecilio [05] Henry, a Frenchman, owner of Bazar Filipino located on the corner of Escolta and T. Pinpin, and agent of the Messageries Maritimes.
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1882
May
2
Philippines
Manila
Trip to Spain - In Manila - saw the ship "Salvadora"
2 May -- Tuesday
[06] The godfather and the father of a child address each other as compadre. [07] Feminine of capitán; a form of address for the wife of a capitán or gobernadorcillo or alcalde, the town executive. [08] Leonor Valenzuela.
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1882
May
3
Philippines
Manila
Trip to Spain - day of departure
3 May -- Wednesday
[09] Leonor Rivera and Leonor Valenzuela. [10] Dolores Habaña. [11] Indio was the name given by the Spaniards to an inhabitant of the islands in Oceania. In the Philippines it had a derogatory connotation. [12] Casco is a Philippine river craft, made of wood, used for passengers and freight. The catig is the vessel’s outriggers made of bamboo canes. [13] Free translation: When in the waves Of the vast seas Golden Apollo Would run to bury His beautiful rays, etc.
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1882
May
4



2nd day of my sailing -- [Thursday] -- 4 May

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1882
May
5



3rd day -- Friday -- 5 May

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1882
May
6



4th day (6 May -- Saturday)

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1882
May
7


Trip to Spain - I have made many pictures today. Does it mean he had a camera?
5th day (7 May -- Sunday)

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1882
May
8



6th day (8 May -- Monday)
[14] The name of the mountain on Talim Island in the middle of Laguna de Bay (Lake of Bay or Baé).
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1882
May
9


Trip to Spain - [15] The name in Rizal’s passport. “Mercado” being the old family name of Rizal’s father, Francisco Mercado, and Rizal a later addition.
7th day (9 May -- Tuesday)
[15] The name in Rizal’s passport. “Mercado” being the old family name of Rizal’s father, Francisco Mercado, and Rizal a later addition. [16] On the left bank of the Pasig River between Manila and Kalamba once stood the Church of San Nicolás, now in ruins. [17] An old elegant vehicle in the Philippines once used for pleasure. 18] The duro is the hard peso. It is the Spanish and Spanish-American peso or dollar. [19] Lala-Ary was an Indian, owner of Fonda de Lala-Aray, a famous restaurant, formerly in what is now called Plaza del Conde and lastly on the Escola, the site now occupied by the Philippine National Bank. Its name was later changed to Hotel Inglés and it moved to Alhambra Street, Ermita, Manila. [20] Punka in India is a large portable fan or canvas-covered frame suspended from the ceiling for fanning a room. [21] Dora, the name of a character in Charles Dicken’s David Copperfield. [22] A painting of the Virgin of the Immaculate Conception.
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1882
May
10



2nd day in Singapore (10 May -- Wednesday
[23] A vara is a measure of length, about 32 inches.
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1882
May
12



2nd day (12 May 1882 [-- Friday])

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1882
May
13



3rd day (13 May -- Saturday)

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1882
May
14



4th day (14 May -- Sunday)
[24] Tagalog name for Artocarpus heterophyllus. [25] Areca catechu Linn.
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1882
May
18



From Point Galle to Colombo
[26] Also written “Kamanchile.” This is a Tagalog word for Pithecolobium dulce (Roxb.). [27] Paul Gustave Doré (1833-1883). French illustrator and painter. [28] At different places in his diary Rizal pauses to address a prayer to his Creator, revealing his profound religiosity. [30] This passage reveals Rizal’s poetic imagination and intense love of country. Although prose, it has a poetic sense to it.
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1882
June
3



3 June -- Saturday
[31] He was Arabi Pasha, an army officer, who led a revolt against the foreigners in Egypt with the slogan “Egypt for the Egyptians.” The anti-foreign agitation began with riots in Alexandria in June 1882 in which 50 Christians were killed. The disorder spread and the British intervened with armed force. They bombarded Alexander on 11 July 1882 and then landed troops which clashed with those of Arabi. On 13 September Arabi was finally defeated at Tel-el-Kebir. He was captured and sent to Ceylon. [32] Viscount Ferdinand Marie de Lesseps (1805 – 1894), French developer of the Suez Canal
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1882
June
5



5 June -- Monday

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1882
June
6



Fourth day in the Canal -- 6 June

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1882
June
7
Egypt
Suez Canal

Travel impressions -- Aden -- The Desert -- Suez -- The Canal -- His good health -- Expecting letters from home.
(1) He was Arabi Pasha, an army officer, who led a revolt against the foreigners in Egypt with the slogan, "Egypt for the Egyptians." The anti-foreign agitation began with riots in Alexandria in June 1882 in which fifty Christians were killed. The disorder spread and the British intervened with armed force. They bombarded Alexandria on 11 July 1882 and then landed troops that clashed with those of Arabi. On 13 September Arabi was finally defeated at Tel-el-Kebir. He was captured and sent to Ceylon.
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1882
June
7



Fifth day -- 7 June

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1882
June
11
Italy
Sicily

11 June -- Sunday
[33] Napoleon Bonaparte (1769 – 1821), emperor of the French (1804-1815). [34] Literally, “as it should be,” that is “suitable.” [35] “Doña,” feminine, and “Don,” masculine, are polite forms of address in Spanish used only with the given or first name, thus “Doña Maria,” or Doña María Salazar,” but never “Doña Salazar.”
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1882
June
14



2nd day in Marseille -- 14 June, Wednesday

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1882
June
15



3rd day [in Marseille] (15 June -- Thursday)

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1882
June
16



The trip [to Barcelona] -- 5:00 p.m. 15 June -- 11:30 a.m. 16 June

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1882
June
23
Spain
Barcelona

Travel impressions -- Port Said -- Napoli -- Marseille Sightseeing -- Barcelona -- Visits factories of porcelain, glass, ceramics -- Sees many things that are applicable in the Philippines
(1) Belen is the Tagalog and Spanish name for Bethlehem. The Tagalogs also called Créche Belén the reproduction of Christ’s birthplace that Christian Filipinos put up in their homes at Christmas time. (2) Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807 - 1882), Italian patriot, who labored for the unification of his native country. (3) It is a cold, dry, violent northern wind of the Mediterranean provinces of France. (4) A measure of distance varying for different times and countries from 3.9 to 7.4 kilometers. (5) Tomás Cabangis of a wealthy family of Tondo, Manila, who was studying medicine at Barcelona. (6) Máximo Cuesta of Pangasinan, student of law at Barcelona. (7) A Jesuit priest at Barcelona to whom Rizal was recommended. (8) The gobernadorcillo or capitain of Calamba from 1867-1868 whose house stood in front of Rizal’s family homestead. The patron saint of the Calamba barrio on the lakeshore is St. Peter and St. Paul, 29th of June.
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1883
January
1



1 JANUARY 1883
[01] NOTE: Footnote One is taken from a website operated by Ari Nagaseo. From Noli Me Tangere (Makati City: Bookmark, 1996), pp. 557-559: “The night of light and happiness for so many children, who in the warm bosoms of the family celebrate the feast of the sweetest memories, the feast that commemorates the first glance of love sent by heaven to earth; that night when all the Christian families eat, drink, dance, sing, laugh, play, love, kiss each other...this night, which in cold countries is magic for children with its traditional pine tree loaded with lights, dolls, sweetmeats and tinsel, whose round eyes reflecting innocence look dazzled; that night had nothing to offer Basilio more than orphancy… “The stranger turned his face towards the east and murmured as though praying: "‘I die without seeing the dawn break on my country...You who are about to see it, greet her...do not forget those who have fallen during the night!’ “He raised his eyes to heaven, his lips moved as if murmuring a prayer, then he lowered his head and fell gradually to the ground...” From Leon Ma. Guerrero, The First Filipino: A Biography of Jose Rizal (Manila: Guerrero Publishing, 1998 [1963]), pp. 443-448: He found time for a special note to his father. 6 a.m. 30th December 1896 My most beloved father: Forgive me the sorrow with which I repay the anxieties and toil you underwent to give me an education. I did not want this nor expected it. Farewell, father, farewell! For his mother words seem to have failed him. "To my much beloved mother, Sra. Da. Teodora Alonso, at six o'clock in the morning of the 30th of December 1896." Both notes are signed rather formally with his full name... He took his stand facing the bay, his back to the rising sun. The drums rolled, the shout of command was given, and the Remigntons of the 70th fired. With one last convulsive effort of the will Rizal twisted his body rightward as he fell, his last sight being perhaps the hard empty eyes of the professional soldiers, companions in arms of those who had impassively lowered Tarsilo down the well and hunted down Elias as he swam in his own blood. He was facing the dawn now, but this he was not to see. "Viva Espana!" screamed Dona Victorina in her elegant carriage. "Viva Espana!" shouted Father Damaso, and added, shaking his fist, "Y mueran los traidores" "Long live Spain and death to traitors!" But as the last Spaniards gave their ragged cheer, and the band of the battalion of volunteers struck up, with unconscious irony, that hymn to human rights and constitutional liberties, the Marcha de Cádiz, the quiet crowd of Filipinos broke through the square, to make sure, said the Spanish correspondent, that the mythical, the godlike Rizal was really dead, or, according to others, to snatch away a relic and keepsake and dip their handkerchiefs in a hero's blood. If he had seen them, the first Filipino would have known that he was not the last. [02] Mr. Pablo Ortiga y Rey, member of the Council of the Philippines, a governmental advisory body, and father of Consuelo Ortiga y Perez. [03] He lost in the card game.
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1883
January
11
Spain
Madrid
Bust of Don Mercado.
Bust of Don Mercado. New Year celebration -- Madrid in the rain -- Fall of the Ministry -- Masquerade ball at the Alhambra -- Feast of San Antonio Abad -- Canon, a guitar celebrity -- Asks for picture of his parents -- Rizal tells brother to save the clay bust of their father made by him
(1) The noted literary man Gaspar Nuñez de Arce succeeded Leon y Castillo as the Minister of Colonies. (2) Water buffalo wallow. (3) Mr. Pablo Ortiga y Rey, a Spaniard, member of the Council of the Philippines. (4) Tapis is a kind of over-shirt, generally black, either silk or cotton, that Tagalog women used to wear. The women of the southern Visayan Islands were said to be suelta, that is, they didn’t wear tapis. (5) A bit of Rizalian satire. (6) A native of Biñan, Laguna, friend of Rizal. It was he who introduced the Noli me Tángére in Spain. He married a Spanish woman at Barcelona. When he returned to the Philippines, he joined the Revolution of 1896. He was also a notable chess player.
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1883
June
21
France
Paris

From Madrid to Paris -- A stroll through Paris -- Laennec Hospital -- Lariboisiere Hospital -- Jardin d’Acclimatation.
(1) Dr. Filipe Zamora, wealthy Filipino physician who was at Paris for specialization. Returning to the Philippines, he became a famous obstetrician and general practitioner. He also resided at Saigon, practicing his profession. (2) The Vendôme Column is 44 meters high covered with the bronze of 1,200 canons taken from the enemy by the Grand Army of Napoleon in 1805. (3) La Illustración Española y Americana, an illustrated magazine published at Madrid, to which Rizal’s family was a subscriber. (4) As a result of the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) France lost Alsance and Lorraine and she didn’t cease to mourn her loss until 1918 when she regained them after the First World War (1914-1918). Strasbourg is the capital city of Alsance. (5) A temple carved in the rock in Hyderabad, India. (6) Mariano Cunanan, wealthy landowner of Pampanga, who was then studying agriculture at Paris. It was he who offered to finance the Colegio Moderno that Rizal planned to establish at Hong Kong. (7) Named after the eminent French physician René Laennéc (1781-1826), discoverer of auscultation [a listening, often with the aid of a stethoscope, to sounds in the chest, abdomen, etc. so as to determine the condition of the heart, lungs, etc.]. (8) A naval base on the Criméa, laid siege during the Crimean War, 1854-1855. (9) A Filipino physician and noted sculptor, brother of Dr. T. H. Pardo de Tavera. (10) Also called mayang-paking in Tagalog, or Luzon brown weaver, Munie Cabanisi.
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1883
July

France
Paris

Tour of Paris continued -- The Bullier -- Musée de Grivín -- The Louvre Museum -- Its vastness and treasures.
(1) Cesar Cantu’s History of the World was a very popular book then. Rizal read it at the age of 12 when he was studying at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila. (2) Name of a powerful French noble family: Duke of Guise (1519 - 1563). Henri I de Lorraine (1550 - 1588), and others. (3) Jean de Bueil (1405 - 1480), called “The Scourge of the English,” associated with the glory of Jeanne d’Arc. (4) Cierre du Terrail, Lord Baynard (1473 - 1524), French captain, whose bravery and generosity aroused the admiration even of his enemies, winning him the appellation of “Knight without fear and without reproach.” (5) “Counted, weighed, divided,” the ominous words that appeared mysteriously on the wall of the banquet hall of King Balthazar.
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1883
July
5
France
Paris

Tour of Paris continued -- National Panorama -- Palace of Industry -- Hotel Dieu --Museum of Orfila -- Jardin des Plantes -- Luxembourg Palace -- Hotel des Invalides
(1) The Latin Quarter, the district in which are located the Sorbonne, Institute of France, and Luxembourg, famous for its Bohemian life. (2) An Italian showman who brought a troupe twice to the Philippines; once in 1882 and again in 1890 or 1891. (3) About the Panorama at Marseille, see his letter number 15 anté. (4) Rizal’s family possessed the biggest private library in Calamba. Dumas’ Count of Monte Cristo was widely read in the Philippines and Rizal read it when he was only 12 years old, a student at the Atenéo Municipal. (5) Named after Mathieu Orfila (1787-1853). French physician and chemist, who made important contributions to toxicology. (6) Tangantangan or Solanum sanctum; tuba, Croton tiglium; lumbang, Aleuritis molucca Willd. (7) Sperm whale. (8) An illustrated publication in Rizal’s home library at Kalamba. (9) Guillaume Lethiére (1760-1832). French painter. (10) Above the entrance to the chapel of the Hotel des Invalides were inscribed the following words: “Je désire que mes cendres reposent sur les bords de la Seine au milieu de ce peuple francais que j’ai tant aimé.” (“I wish my ashes to rest on the banks of the Seine amidst the French people I have loved so much.”) This was written by Napoleon at St. Helena, where he was exiled, in the codicil to his testament on 16 April 1821, twenty days before his death. His wish was fulfilled on 15 December 1840 when his bones were brought to Paris and deposited in the chapel of the Hotel des Invalides by order of King Louis Philippe of Orleans. (11) Geraud Christophe-Michel Duroc (1772-1844), French general and grand marshal under the empire / Count Henri -Gratien Bertrand (1773-1844), faithful aide-de-camp of Napoleon I who stayed with him during the period of his exile at Elba and St. Helena. It was he who brought Napoleon’s bones to Parish in 1840. / Vicomte Henri de la Tour d’Auvergne Turenne (1611 - 1675), French marshal. Marquis Sebastian de Vauban (1633 - 1707), French military engineer and marshal of France. / Jerome Bonaparte (1784 - 1860), king of Westphalia and marshal of France, brother of Napoleon I. Joseph Bonaparte (1768 - 1844), king of Spain (1801 - 1813), brother of Napoleon I.
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1883
August
2
France
Paris

Some monuments in Parish - Pantheon -- Jardin des Plantes -- Abbey of Cluny -- Julian Baths -- French national holiday -- Palace of Versailles.
(1) Epyornis is an ostrich-like bird whose eggs are a foot long and 9 inches in diameter, genus Aepyornis. (2) A pilon of sugar was sugar molded in large clay jars, weighing about 100 pounds. This was the way sugar was marked in the Philippines during the Spanish regime. (3) Or, langka Artocarpus integrifolia L. (4) Pipit is a Tagalog name for the northern willow warbler, Acanthopneuste borealis. (5) His nephews, son of Narcisa and Anotonio López. (6) Onzita was an old Spanish gold coin, the size of the present (1960) Philippine silver ten-centavo piece. .(7) See note, letter 5, anté. ( 8) It was in downtown Manila, a Chinese business district. The name of the street as well as its character remains to this day (1960). (9) Tagalog word meaning "dip"; that is a dip bath. (10) The state military academy in France, the equivalent of the American West Point Military Academy. (11) Rizal alludes to the cry of the French patriots for “Revenge” after the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) when the new German Empire (1871-1919) annexed the French provinces of Alsace and Lorraine.
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1 January 1884 [07] - Addendum - The period January 1 to November 1, 1884 portion of his diary comes from W. E. Retana's "Vida and Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal", Madrid 1907 p ages 72 - 91 - Gilbert
[07] Rizal’s diary from 1 January to 1 November 1884 is found in W. E. Retana’s, biography of Rizal, Vida y escritos del Dr. José Rizal, Madrid, 1907, pp. 72-91. He obtained the original manuscript from the Filipino historian Clemente J. Zuleta as a gift and then he sold it to the North-American bibliophile Mr. E. E. Ayer (Austin Craig, Los errors de Retana, Manila, 1910). Addendum - The period January 1 to November 1, 1884 portion of his diary comes from W. E. Retana's "Vida and Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal", Madrid 1907 p ages 72 - 91 - Gilbert [08] A novel by Victor Hugo (1826) regarding the slave uprising in San Domingo the subsequent liberation of Haiti. It was informed by accounts regarding Toussaint Louverture.
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2 January

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[09] The college of medicine of the Universidad Central, Madrid. [10] Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, the school of fine arts.
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[11] About the ciphers Professor Miguel de Unamuno of Salamanca University wrote Retana the following: "In these ciphered phrases Rizal substituted the letters in the first line for those below: a e i o c f g l m n r s t v e a o i v g f t n m s r l c He left out the letters u, b, d, h, j, p, q, y. Apply and you'll see that it says: "Pedro is looking for votes so that he will be made president. Lete is still in love with Consuelo; I believe that shortly he'll love her less." Knowing the key, it is already easy to decipher the other ciphered phrases. (W.E. Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal, Madrid, 1907, p. 74.)
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5 January (Saturday)

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6 January
[12] It refers to the Tagalog corrido entitled Pinagdaanang buhay ni Florante at ni Laura sa kahariang Albania (The Life of Florante and Laura in the Kingdom of Albania). This corrido is considered the best poem that has been written in the Tagalog language. Francisco Baltazar, the author, was so modest that he published it anonymously. About Francisco Baltazar [Balagtas] and his writings see the book entitled Kung sino ang kumatha ng Florante by the young Tagalog Mr. Hermenegildo Cruz, printed in Manila, 1906. Corrido is a corruption or contraction of the Spanish word ocurrido (happened). The corridos are to Tagalog literature what the old tales of chivalry are to Spanish literature. The poets put to a test their imagination and they carry the protagonists who commonly are princes or kings to the remotest countries, making them go through many strange adventures. For that reason, corrido has its origin in the tales of chivalry. (W. E. Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal, Madrid, 1907, p. 74.)
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7 January

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[13] It seems he writes this with real satisfaction. In spite of the 32 pesetas for dinner -- the only extravagance in one semester -- he was very economical; Rizal did not smoke and he hardly spent for anything else except for books. (W.E. Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal, Madrid, 1907, p. 75.) [14] NOTE: Footnote Fourteen is taken from a website operated by Ari Nagaseo. Eleuterio Ruiz de Leon (?) See John N. Schumacher, The Propaganda Movement: 1880-1895; The Creation of a Filipino Consciousness, the Making of a Revolution, Rev. ed. (Quezon City: Ateneo UP, 1997), p. 177 n 16: The one apparent exception [to the all-Filipino membership of the revived "Solidaridad" Masonic lodge in Madrid] was Eleuterio Ruiz de Leon, who was, however, married to a Filipina, and had been patron of the Filipino students in Madrid from as early as 1881 (see Felix M. Roxas, The World of Felix Roxas, tr. by Angel Estrada and Vicente del Carmen [Manila: The Filipiniana Book Guild, 1970], p. 39).
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9 January

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[15] Leonor Rivera's father. [16] Leonor's letter is loving with a most pleasant ending. (W.E. Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal, Madrid, 1907, p. 76.)
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11 January

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[17] NOTE: Footnote Seventeen is taken from a website operated by Ari Nagaseo. Julio Llorente. See John N. Schumacher, The Propaganda Movement: 1880-1895; The Creation of a Filipino Consciousness, the Making of a Revolution, rev. ed. (Quezon City: Ateneo UP, 1997), p. 59 n.1: Julio Llorente, a classmate and intimate of Jose Rizal at the Ateneo Municipal, obtained the doctorate in law in Madrid in 1885. Though active in these years in the Filipino colony, he wrote little or nothing, at least under his own name, and returned to the Philippines in 1891. Arrested at the outbreak of the Revolution in 1896, he was released through the intervention of [Segismundo] Moret, and was an important figure in the judiciary from the earliest years of the American regime. [18] NOTE: Footnote Eighteen is taken from a website operated by Ari Nagaseo. Evaristo Aguirre. See John N. Schumacher, The Propaganda Movement: 1880-1895; The Creation of a Filipino Consciousness, the Making of a Revolution, Rev. ed. (Quezon City: Ateneo UP, 1997), p. 59 n. 1: Evaristo Aguirre was born of Spanish parents in Cavite, and was at this time a student in Madrid. He was a confidant and assiduous correspondent of Rizal, and his letters are a principal source for the events of this period [1886-1891]. In spite of being of pure Spanish blood, his letters show that he considered himself purely Filipino, and his nationalism was of the most ardent. [19] Note: Footnote Nineteen is taken from a website operated by Ari Nagaseo. Pedro Govantes. See John N. Schumacher, The Propaganda Movement: 1880-1895; The Creation of a Filipino Consciousness, the Making of a Revolution, Rev. ed. (Quezon City: Ateneo UP, 1997), p. 42, n. 2: Pedro Govantes was the son of Felipe Govantes, a Spaniard who held many posts in the Philippine administration, and remained permanently there. Pedro was the nephew of the Azcarragas, and had been active in Manila journalism for a few years before coming to Spain to get his doctorate in law. [20] “The majority talk a great deal, but when it comes to giving money, they refuse to give.” (W.E. Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal, Madrid, 1907, p. 75.)
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15 January (Tuesday)

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16 February (Saturday)

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16 January
[21] Rizal is mistaken inasmuch as there is no gallery of senators but of ex-senators and ex-deputies to which only these men have access. It must be then another gallery. Note the patience of Rizal who waited in order to enter from twelve o'clock and some minutes until six continuously. And without lunch! (W.E. Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal, Madrid, 1907, 78)
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18 January
[22] From the statement it can be deduced that Rizal didn't take part in the riot, which is not surprising: considering his peaceful and thoughtful nature. (W.E. Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal, Madrid, 1907, p. 76).
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[23] Apparently what they owed him and cost him so much trouble to recover, were those 3 pesetas and 35 cents. (W.E. Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal, Madrid, 1907, p. 77).
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[24] Rizal invested every month from 3 to 6 pesetas in lottery tickets. This was his only vice. When he was in Mindanao he won one-third prize of a ticket owned by him, Politico-Military Commander [Ricardo Sanchez] Carnicero, and one Spaniard surnamed Equilior. (W.E. Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal, Madrid, 1907, p. 77). [25] Note: Footnote Twenty-five is taken from a website operated by Ari Nagaseo. Consuelo Ortiga, daughter of Pablo Ortiga y Rey. From Leon Ma. Guerrero, The First Filipino: A Biography of Jose Rizal ([Pasig City?]: Guerrero Publishing, 1998 [1963]), 102-103, 110 [endnote]: [Rizal] seems to have thoroughly enjoyed a flirtation with Consuelo Ortiga, the daughter of Pablo Ortiga y Rey, who [end of page 102] had been mayor of Manila in de la Torre's time, and was now a counselor at the Colonial Office and a ready host to all young liberals. "Consuelo was kind to me," he notes in his journal. He sends her gifts: native cloths, music sheets from Paris, the first flower of a houseplant. Consuelo's diary [*] follows the progress of the affair in more detail. Rizal says that he never goes out except to go to medical school and to come here at night... Rizal too is in love; he hasn't proposed outright but almost, almost... I am divided between Rizal and [Eduardo de] Lete. The former attracts me because of his conversation and because he seems such a serious young man... Rizal told me he was leaving for Paris to forget, to heal himself of a disease acquired a year ago; that he had seen others fooled by the amiability with which they had been treated and was afraid the same thing would happen to him; that he had once fallen in love and it had seemed to him that he was going to be accepted, but that suddenly he had been disappointed [dear Segunda!]. Now it was different because the girl concerned belonged to a much higher class. "I aspire", he said, "too high." She had, in fact, made her choice in favor of Lete. In February 1884 he still could not understand it and asked her how she looked upon him. "As a friend," she replied. "Do you want more?" "Really, that should be enough," he said with a certain irony. "Poor Rizal!" exclaims Consuelo in her diary. He for his part relieved his feelings by writing her verses, of which the concluding stanzas give the flavor. Un imposible, una ambicidn, locura, Suenos del alma, una pasion tal vez... Bebed el nectar que en la vida sirven; Dejad tranquilo reposar la hiel. De nuevo siento las espesas sombras Cubrir el alma con su denso tul; Capullo, si no mas, no flor hermosa, Pues le faltan la atmosfera y la luz. Tenedlos alli, pobres versos mios, Hijos malditos que lacto el pesar; Saben muy bien a quien deben su vida, Y ellos a vos os lo diran quizas. [**] *[Rafael] Palma [Biografia de Rizal (Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1949)], 55 et seq. Apparently quoting from a manuscript in the National Museum. **Poesias [de Rizal], (Manila: [Bureau of Printing?], 1946], p. 52. [26] Philippine textile, made of abaca fiber. Costs little. (W.E. Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal, Madrid, 1907, p. 77).
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21 January
[27] In code: “Paterno has exploited him, harshly. He promised to pay his debts in order to make him work and afterwards he didn't want to pay him anything.”
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22 January

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[28] Ari Nagaseo adds this footnote: Did Rizal mean the Casino de Madrid? [29] Rizal refers to the article published in El Correo, a Madrid daily, in its issue for 22 January 1884, entitled Un Museo y Un The an exaggerated and sickening description of the house of the Paternos in Madrid and the dinner they gave the newspapermen. It depicted the Paternos as exceedingly rich and ostentatious. Retana says, Rizal wishes his countrymen to be less ostentatious and more serious. (W.E. Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal, Madrid, 1907, p. 79.) [30] It shows that Rizal didn't know it in detail. He was never invited to the banquets that the Paternos have been giving. Those brothers (Pedro above all), avid of ostentation, showered entertainments on the last Spanish reporter and they omitted their compatriots of the merit of Rizal... Perhaps because Rizal could not appear in dress coat, which the poor student didn't have! (W.E. Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal, Madrid, 1907, p. 79.) [31] A stroke of delicacy that honors him; and at the same time, political foresight. It is to be assumed that the greater part of the pictures Rizal had were those of simple Tagalogs "with shirt out" and he must have been aware that there might be someone who, on seeing them would make a disdainful gesture or smile ironically. Rizal loved his countrymen too much to be pleased by such things. (W.E. Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal, Madrid, 1907, p. 79.)
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24 January

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[32] In Code: Leonor had been unfaithful; but her infidelity was so great that it had no remedy. [33] Benedict Anderson's literal translation. See Benedict Anderson, "Nitroglycerine in the Pomegranate," New Left Review 27 (May/June 2004): 115n38. The original entry, as quoted by Anderson, states: "Esta novela es una de las que me han parecido mejor urdidas, hijas únicas del talento y de la meditación. No habla al corazón como el dulce lenguaje de Lamartine. Se impone, domina, confunde, subyuga, pero no hace llorar. Yo no sé si es porque estoy endurecido." Compare Encarnacion Alzona's translation: "It seemed to me to be the best contrived novel, the fruit alone of talent and meditation. The sweet language of Lamartine does not speak to the heart. It imposes, dominates, confuses, subjugates, but it does not make one cry. I don't know if it's because I'm hardened." The subject of the passage shifts, in Alzona's translation, from Sue's novel to Lamartine's "sweet language" whereas in the "original" it is Sue's novel that "imposes, dominates, confuses, subjugates, but... does not make one cry."
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26 January
[34] Fr. Francisco Rivas, Dominican. He filled high positions at the University of Manila (University of Santo Tomas) and later in Spain. While he was procurator in Madrid in 1870, he published two pamphlets against the reforms of the Minister of Colonies, Mr. Moret, directed towards the secularization of the University of Manila. Fr. Rivas died at Vergara on 14 January 1884. (W.E. Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal, Madrid, 1907, p. 80.) [35] The Filipino friends of Don Pablo Ortiga y Rey sometimes referred to him as El Padre Eterno, because of his long beard that made him look like the usual image of God the Father. Etermes may be a wrong transcription of El Padre Eterno. They also called him "Mr. Paul," the English for Pablo. [36] In Code: “Consuelo [Ortiga] has been very amiable.”
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27 January
[37] El Ateneo de Madrid es un sociedad privada declarada de utilidad pública. Reglamentariamente el Ateneo de Madrid se define como una "Sociedad científica, literaria y artística. Se propone difundir las ciencias, las letras y las artes por todos los medios adecuados, y favorecer, dentro de su seno, el desarrollo de Agrupaciones que se propongan realizar la investigación científica y el cultivo de las artes y de las letras. La actividad cultural del Ateneo no está restringida exclusivamente a beneficiar a sus socios, sino abierta a cualquier otro posible beneficiario que reúna las condiciones y caracteres exigidos por la índole de sus propios fines". [38] Code: “They were looking for a house but they wanted it cheap; I offered my room.”
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28 January

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29 January (Tuesday)

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30 January
[39] Jose M. Cecilio.
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[40] Doctor Santiago Gonzalez Encinas: See John N. Schumacher, The Propaganda Movement: 1880-1895; The Creation of a Filipino Consciousness, the Making of a Revolution, Rev. ed. (Quezon City: Ateneo UP, 1997), p. 57, n.27: Another republican who may have influenced the Filipinos, though he never joined their activities, was Doctor Santiago Gonzalez Encinas, a professor of medicine at the University of Madrid... Encinas is the only professor mentioned by Rizal in his notebook "Clinica medica," where he speaks highly of him as a professor ([W.E.] Retana, Vida [y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal, Madrid: Victoriano Suarez, 1907, p. 65).
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[41] Now the site of a popular Madrid nightspot: Es, sin duda, la discoteca con más historia de todo Madrid. Sede habitual de los famosos de la prensa rosa y de los turistas. El Teatro Eslava, que abrió sus puertas en 1870 a la bohemia nocturna que surgía en la capital, ha atravesado por épocas de decrepitud, por el cierre durante una década e incluso por la devastación en dos incendios, para seguir siendo el reclamo nocturno de la ciudad. Ambiente híbrido donde se combinan figuras de la aristocracia con los Drag Queens. La música de últimas tendencias y los éxitos.
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2 February
[42] The Filipino friends of Don Pablo Ortiga y Rey sometimes referred to him as El Padre Eterno, because of his long beard that made him look like the usual image of God the Father. Etermes may be a wrong transcription of El Padre Eterno. They also called him "Mr. Paul," the English for Pablo.
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[43] Opéra-comique en 3 actes de Henri Chivot et Alfred Duru; musique de Edmond Audran [1842-1901]. Création à Paris , théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens le 29 (ou le 30) décembre 1880 avec Mlles Montbazon (Bettina) et Dinelli (Fiametta), MM Morlet (Pippo), Charles Lamy (Fritellini), Hittemans (Laurent XVII), Raucourt (Rocco) et Desmonts (Mathéo).
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17 February (Sunday)
[44] Pedro Paterno?
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[45] Brother of Segunda Katigbak. From Asuncion Lopez Bantug, Lolo Jose: An Intimate Portrait of Rizal (Manila: Intramuros Administration, 1982), p. 35: "Jose was fifteen years old when, in an old house in Trozo, her first set eyes on pretty Segunda Katigbak. Trozo was then a vilage between the two great Manila boroughs of Tondo and Santa Cruz. Segunda was a sister of a friend of Jose's, Mariano Katigbak.” As Rizal writes in his Reminiscences (Manila: Jose Rizal National Centennial Commission, 1961), 28: "I had made a pencil portrait of Miss K., that I copied from a photograph that she had given me... I offered her the portrait I had made, which pleased her." Earlier (on pages 25-26) Rizal describes his first encounter with Segunda sometime in 1877: "My friend M. [Mariano Katigbak of Lipa, Batangas] went to our house every Sunday and other days and afterwards together we would go to Trozo to the house of a grandmother of mine, friend of his father. For me the days passed happily and silently until one Sunday when we went to Trozo, we encountered there a girl [Segunda Katigbak] of about fourteen years fresh, pleasant, winsome, who received my companion with much familiarity, from which I deduced that she might be his sister who I already heard was going to marry a relative whose name I didn't remember. In fact we found there a tall man, dressed nicely, who seemed to be her fiancé [Manuel Luz of Lipa, Batangas]. She was short, with expressive eyes, ardent at times, and drooping at other times, pinkish, a smile so bewitching and provocative that revealed some very beautiful teeth; with an air of a sylph. I don't know what alluring something was all over her being. She was not the most beautiful woman I had ever seen but I had never seen one more bewitching and alluring."
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25 February (Monday of the Carnival) [46]
[46] Carnaval is celebrated throughout Spain but it is especially popular in the south. The city of Cadiz, for example, is well-known for its desfiles (parades), elegant processions and elaborate costumes. In most areas of Spain, Carnaval is celebrated during the week before miercoles de Ceniza. Students do not have classes during this week because there are dias de fiestas. A cohete (a rocket) is fired to open the celebraciones. Then the streets fill with trajes de colores (colorful costumes) and floats. The desfiles and bailes de enmarcarados (masked balls) play a big part in the Carnaval celebrations. No matter where you are in Spain, Carnaval ends at midnight el martes antes de miercoles de Ceniza. Sometimes una muneca de paja (a straw doll) -- which represents Carnaval -- is burned to mark the end of the Carnaval season. The next day, el miercoles de Ceniza, there is another ceremony called El Entierro de la Sardina (Burial of the Sardine). The "fun times" are buried because it is now la Cuaresma -- a time of fasting and praying. The sardina is a symbol which reminds the people that now they will be eating fish instead of meat. (Catholics still observe the tradition of not eating meat on miercoles de Ceniza and on Fridays during la Cuaresma). In the "old days" a real sardina was used in the mock funeral processsion but now a sardina plastica is often used. The people in the funeral procession are dressed in black. The men wear suits and chesteras (top hats). The women wear vestidos negros (black dresses) and velos negos (black veils). The women pretend to cry as they walk to the river. When they reach the river, the sardina is thrown into the river or sometimes it is burned instead. Later this day, people go to church where they receive cenizas in the form of a cross on their foreheads. Madrid’s traditional medieval carnival was revived in 1976 after being squashed for 40 years under Franco’s regime.
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[47] “It's good to know it when they want to talk to me about friendships.” Together with the note for this day is a piece of paper which says: "Only Pepe Esquivel was there; his brother wasn't. Aguirre and S. who is a Canarian. If someone allowed the mockery that you state here (though it's true), it doesn't mean to say that the rest were contented. I protest! Your amiability will excuse my indiscretion. Your, L. ([W.E.] Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal [Madrid: Victoriano Suarez, 1907], p. 83).
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[48] “He defended his ideas against a Spaniard.” Here's a brief note but of real importance. Rizal, who was suffering from the obsession that the colored man, solely for being so, was the object of scorn of the white (and the proof of this will be seen later) believed that the Filipinos, for the sake of their dignity, ought to have, like him, the courage of their convictions. Thus, he was pleased to know that a Filipino had defended his ideas against a Spaniard. ([W.E.] Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal [Madrid: Victoriano Suarez, 1907], p. 83).
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19 March (Wednesday, St. Joseph)

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[50] A well-known boarding school for girls, La Concordia College was administered by the Sisters of Charity. It was founded in 1868 by Margarita Roxas de Ayala, a wealthy Filipino woman, who gave her country home called La Concordia in Sta. Ana, Manila, to the school and hence its popular designation. Its official name is Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepcion. [ 51] Rizal took one course in French at the Ateneo de Manila. In Madrid he read much in this language which later in Paris he came to master in the same way that he did Spanish, English, and German, in all of which he wrote with ease. (W.E. Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal [Madrid: Victoriano Suárez, 1907], p. 85). [52] It is needless to recommend the importance of this intimate note that fully depicts Rizal. Thus he wrote with all his soul when he had not yet reached 23 years. Considering himself old was already an old obsession of his, principally since his coming to Spain. W.E. Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal [Madrid: Victoriano Suárez, 1907], p.86).
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[53] Footnote added by Ari Nagaseo. Ludwig Ferdinand Maria Karl Heinrich Adalbert Franz Philipp Andreas Konstantin, Prince of Bavaria, Dr. med., 1859-1949. On April 2, 1883, one year before Rizal's diary entry, he married Doña Maria de la Paz Juana Amelia Adelberta Francisca de Paula Juana Baptista Isabel Francisca de Asis, Infanta of Spain, 1862-1946.
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Wounded Gladiator -I have made many pictures today. - Today I began a small work of sculpture which represents a wounded gladiator
Today I began a small work of sculpture which represents a wounded gladiator [54].8 April
[54] This sculpture (not original) together with two others (original) were given to Prof. Blumentritt by Rizal in 1887. Rizal began sculpture in Manila when he was a student. The excellent Filipino artist Mr. Eomualdo T. de Jesús gave him his first lessons. (El Renacimiento, 26 June 1906 in W.E. Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal [Madrid: Victoriano Suárez, 1907], p. 87).
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9 April

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10 April (Maundy Thursday)

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Spain


17 April
[55] A footnote added by Ari Nagaseo. Kean, ou Désordre et génie (Kean, or Disorder and Genius), 1836 by Alexandre Dumas père. From The Alexandre Dumas père Web Site: A drama in five acts, written in 1836 (at the height of Dumas' popularity as a playwright), and set in London in about 1820. For his subject, Dumas takes the character of the greatest British Shakespearian actor of his day, Edmund Kean (1787-1833). Born in poverty and obscurity, Kean swiftly became Britain's most famous (and best remunerated) actor by sheer force of ability, gaining the favor of London society. Kean's private life was a chaotic stew of debt, violence, intoxication, and other people's wives. He collapsed on stage in 1833 (playing Othello) and died broke. Kean's humble origin, genius, and sudden popular acclaim mirrored Dumas' experience in France, and Dumas took as his particular topic the relationship between the aristocracy of talent and the aristocracy of birth, a topic he also explored throughout the character of Benvenuto Cellini in Ascanio. In the play, Kean is embroiled in an unhappy love affair with Countess Elena Koefeld, wife of the British ambassador. Waking from a drunken stupor, Kean meets a star-struck underage heiress, Anna Damby, who has just fled from an arranged marriage with a powerful politician, Lord Melville, leaving his Lordship standing at the altar. The meeting comes to the attention of Lord Melville, who, knowing of Kean's reputation as a womanizer, plans to abduct Miss Damby and blame the episode on Kean. Meanwhile, Kean comes to believe that his Countess is being courted by his royal patron, the Prince of Wales. In a series of tightly plotted scenes, Kean unmasks Lord Melville in the act of trying to kidnap Anna, challenges him to duel, only to have Melville refuse on the grounds that he is a peer of the realm while Kean is "a buffoon and a clown." The next day, preparing for performance of "Romeo and Juliet," Kean receives the Countess in his dressing room, and begs her not to see the Prince of Wales. Immediately, the Prince knocks on the door, the Countess is quickly bundled out a side exit, and Kean then begs the Prince not to seduce the countess, because he could not uphold his honor against a member of the royalty. The Prince puts him off, and Kean is distraught. The play begins, and, in the audience, Kean spies the Countess sitting with the Prince of Wales as well as Lord Melville. Abandoning the play altogether, Kean delivers a fiery denunciation of Lord Meville as a kidnapper and of the Prince of Wales as a seducer. Kean collapses onstage in a fit of madness. In the fifth act, Dumas masterfully pulls all the strings together and delivers a happy ending, with Kean and Anna Damby departing for a year's tour in America, and the Count and Countess returning to Denmark.
Details
1884
April
19
Spain


19 April
[56] A footnote added by Ari Nagaseo. The play Montjoie written in 1863 by Octave Feuillet, 1821-1890. From Junius Henri Browne, "A Few French Celebrities," Harper's New Monthly Magazine 47.282 (November, 1873), pages 839-840: Octave Feuillet, just turned of sixty, is best known in this country as the author of The Romance of a Poor Young Man, familiar both as a novel and a drama. He has published not less than fifty or sixty novels, comedies, vaudevilles, and scenes of fantasy, nearly all of which have received a warm welcome in Paris, where he has resided since his early boyhood. Though the son of a captain-general of prefecture, he owes his advancement to his own exertions, and his success in literature to a high order of intellect and indefatigable industry. Once, when he was complaining that some of his later books had not sold as well as they ought to sell, his wife told him they were too pure to be popular—that the public preferred printed wickedness to any thing else. The consequence was Camors, which was eagerly purchased, and of which a translation in English has found here a host of readers. Madame Feuillet evidently understands the world. Feuillet is a thorough-paced Frenchman, who hated the Germans as vehemently as any Frenchman should. It will be remembered that, just after the close of the war, he was arrested on the frontier by the enemies of his country for some severe strictures he had published upon them, and that he took advantage of his temporary imprisonment to wrap himself, metaphorically, in the tricolor, and to become typographically epigrammatic at the expense of the barbarous foe. Feuillet has a calm, fine, strong face, was decidedly handsome in his youth, and his manners and address are reposeful and attractive.
Details
1884
April
20
Spain


20 April
[57] It is strange that Rizal never mentions letters from his parents to him or from him to his parents whom he loved with veneration. Without doubt the following lines of Mr. Epifanio de los Santos allude to this note. "As in some Tagalog families, while the father was in charge of the farm work to the mother belonged, besides the household duties, the keeping of the list and accounting of the tenants and the correspondence about which she informed her husband verbally. Rizal, as a good son, considered as articles of faith whatever advices came from his parents, even on literary matters. Hence his correspondence was always with his mother. He wrote his father only a few times and his last one was when he was awaiting execution.["] Perfectly. But this does not lessen our surprise that he does not mention letters from his mother to him and from him to her. Maybe his uncle Antonio served them as an intermediary, the one who sent him the money, which in truth he made use of. He spent for food some ten reales daily (later he spent six only). He rarely went to the theater and when he did it was, more than any thing else, to see very notable actors or performances. With regard to his personal luxuries, there are noted a scarf-pin for three pesetas and a cut-away coat with its vest bought for two duros! On the other hand he spent all he could for books in the midst of his poverty. This, for a lad of twenty-three years living in Madrid who is free to go anywhere, denotes a truly virtuous man. (W.E. Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal (Madrid: Victoriano Suárez, 1907), 88) [58] He brewed coffee on an alcohol lamp.
Details
1884
April
21
Spain


21 April

Details
1884
April
24
Spain


24 April
[59] Footnote added by Ari Nagsaeo. Ernesto Rossi, 1827-1896, Italian actor.
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1884
April
25
Spain


25 April

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1884
April
26
Spain


26 April

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1884
April
27
Spain


27 April

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1884
April
28
Spain


28 April

Details
1884
May
1
Spain


1 May
[60] He reduces this expense further: Six reales daily! (W.E. Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal (Madrid: Victoriano Suárez, 1907), p. 89.)
Details
1884
May
2



2 May 1883 – Visitación 8 – 3rd floor, No. 4
[04] Paterno, Calero, Perio, and Lete. [05] On 2 May 1808 bitter street-fighting occurred in Madrid which marked the beginning of the Spanish uprising against the French invaders. [06] Leonor Rivera, Rizal’s fiancée.
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1884
May
2
Spain


2 May
[61] Footnote added by Ari Nagaseo. Pseudonym used by Marie Joseph Emmanuel Auguste Dieudonné, Comte de Las Cases, 1766-1842. He is best known for Mémorial de Sainte-Hélène (1823), a biography of Napoleon Bonaparte, as dictated -- and corrected -- by the exiled leader himself. [62] Footnote added by Ari Nagaseo. Atlas Historique, Généalogique, Chronologique et Géographique, par A. Le Sage. On January 9, 1884, Rizal decided against buying a "badly damaged" and thus "valueless" copy of the same Atlas.
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1884
May
3
Spain


3 May

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1884
May
3



3 May

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1884
May
5
Spain


5 May

Details
1884
May
6
Spain


6 May
[63] Footnote added by Ari Nagaseo. Probably volume 9 of the Oeuvres Complètes de Voltaire. Nouv. éd. (Paris: Garnier Frères, 1877-85). Included in that volume is La pucelle or "The Virgin," a poem on the life of Jeanne d'Arc, originally written in 1762. [64] The "Lordling" referred to is Mr. Manuel Lorenzo d'Ayot, Filipino creole, who has been living in Spain for several years and is a writer. (W.E. Retana, Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal (Madrid: Victoriano Suárez, 89). This information is added by Ari Nagaseo: In the National Library of Spain are kept the following works by Manuel Lorenzo d'Ayot: the play Felipe II, the novel Grisina (1908), and the prose poems La Iberiada (1896), La Idea (1891), and Magnolia (1887).
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1884
June
5
Spain


5 June

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1884
June
6
Spain


6 June
[65] Notable is equivalent to "Very Good."
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1884
June
9
Spain


9 June

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1884
June
14
Spain


14 June

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1884
June
15
Spain


15 June

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1884
June
19
Spain


19 June

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1884
June
20
Spain


20 June

Details
1884
June
21
Spain


21 June

Details
1884
June
25
Spain


I won the first prize in Greek.
[66] I was hungry and I had noting to eat, nor money. The illustrious Unamuno rightly observes in his letter enclosing his interpretation of the coded note: “This not having anything to eat and the dream that Leonor was unfaithful and her infidelity had no remedy are two details that reward the very little effort that I made to discover the key.” But Rizal ate finally at nine o’clock at night at the banquet given in honor of the painters Luna and Resurrección. It was there that he delivered the speech mentioned in the diary. . . . Rizal’s modesty was admirable. He does not even state that he was applauded, that he was at the same table as Moret, Labra, and other political personages. It is very true that far above this note of vanity that to him was of no account was the strong contrast of winning a prize in the competition in the morning and spending the afternoon without eating and without money. Hungry! Hungry! Precisely on the day he won in the competition! As to the dream that Leonor had been unfaithful, this was fulfilled in a certain way, though much later, because she married an Englishman. Mr. Epifanio de los Santos says on this matter: “How could she marry a persecuted man? To become unfortunate? This recalls the advice of Fr. Damaso (in the Noli me tangere) to his daughter Maria Clara.” In another passage the same Mr. Santos says: “There exist pictures of Leonor drawn by Rizal. His own family assures that Rizal loved deeply his fiancée. When his sisters asked him what a Filipino woman should be, for an answer, Rizal referred them to his letters to Leonor. If they could get them they will find in them, mutatis mutandis, what the education of the women of his country should be. Unfortunately these letters were destroyed when Leonor married. Rizal didn’t love again, so far as it is known, until during his exile in Mindanao, he met Josephine. But this love for Josephine, what a different kind of love! (Retana, op cit., p. 90)
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1884
June
26
Spain


26 June

Details
1884
June
28
Spain
Madrid
Rizal's graduation as physician
Rizal's graduation as physician -- Received congratulations -- Brilliant examination at the Universidad Central
(1) He was Miguel Morayta, professor of history, liberal, and friend of the Filipinos. (2) At the banquet in honor of the Filipino painters Juan Luna and Felix Resurrección Hidalgo held on 25 June 1884, Rizal delivered a brilliant speech, though he had little time to prepare for it, being in the midst of his final examinations. He received repeated and prolonged applause. L On that same day he received the first prize in Greek, a high academic distinction but he was then penniless and did not eat the whole day. Read Reminiscences and Travels of Jose Rizal, Rizal Centennial Edition, 1961, p. 94.
Details
1884
June
30
Spain


Today I won the prize for Greek and Latin literature.

Details
1884
November
1
Spain


1 November (Saturday)
[67] It must be noted that in this copy of the diary are suppressed many small expenses frequently indicated, such as paper, that Rizal used to buy every three days, carfare, for which he spent about a peseta and a half monthly, and some postage stamps besides those he bought for the Philippines (the most costly) were all note down. (Supra, p. 91)
Details
1886


Germany
Heidelberg
Impressions of Madrid
Taken from the book "Reminiscenses".
Taken from the book Reminiscenses". Transcribed in W.E. Retana:Vida y Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal, Madrid 1907 pages 100 - 102. Letter is taken from Rizal's notebook "Clinica" in French.
Details
1886
February
9
Germany
Heidelberg

Rizal's arrival at Heidelberg -- The German student -- Student duels and associations -- Impressions of Heidelberg.
(1) From 1871 to 1919 part of this frontier town belong to France and part to Germany. (2) This is a large astronomical clock. An angel strikes a bell for the quarter hours; a genius reverses his hour-glass every hour; a symbolic deity steps out of his niche each day -- Apollo on Sunday, Diana on Monday and so one; each day at noon the Twelve Apostles march around the figure of the Savior, while in the morning a cock on the highest pinnacle stretches his neck, flaps his wings, and crows.
Details
1886
February
26
Germany
Heidelberg

Rizal attending Dr. Otto Becker's Augen Klinik -- Illumination of the Castle -- A tour of the Castle -- Rizal continues to study German.
Rizal arrived in Heidelberg Feb 3. He mentions in the letter he had been working 13 days already in the clinic so this means that he wrote this letter on the `17th and also the letter says in the last paragraph "Tomorrow I will move to the new address…" The plaque in Heidelberg says he moved there on the 18th. * L. Spittael (1) Johann Heinrich Vows (1751-1826), German poet and translator of the Iliad, Odyssey, etc. (2) Philip Schwartzert Melanchton (1497-1560), German Lutheran theologian professor, and religious reformer. (3) Awits are stories in verse. Awit also means song. It's a Tagalog term. (4) Rizal refers to José Tuason, teacher, poet and playwright, who lived at Navotas, now in Rizal Province. A native of Balanga, Bataan, he was the author of the popular song Ang magtanim ay hindi biro, of the poems Ang Matandang Sariwa. Awit ng Manananim, a play entitled Mga Siphayo ng Pag-ibig, and others.
Details
1886
August
9
Germany
Heidelberg

9 August 1886 (Monday) Actually August 9 to August 14
* The following diaries -- From Heidelberg to Leipzig via the Rhine, Halle, Dresden and Berlin; From Marseille to Manila; From Manila to Calamba; and From Biñan to Manila -- are found in one notebook. A Photostat was used by the translator. [ 01] That is, Rhine Valley. [02] The beautiful park in Madrid. [03] Erected under Grand Duke Frederick. [04] Erected under King Ludwig II. [05] Rizal calls this plant tecas-tecas (or tikas-tikas). It is a Tagalog common name for the wild Canna indica Linnaeus. (Courtesy of the Filipino scientist Dr. Leopoldo B. Uichanco.) [06] These are missing. [07] Larix. [08] The prefix Gross means big or large; literally the name is Big Home [09] Central Station. [10] For images related to this leg of Rizal's travels in Germany, see the Mainz section of the Rizal's Heritage Trail in Germany site. There you'll see images of the Hotel de Hollande, the Mainz railroad station, and the steamer Neiderwald. http://www.knights-of-rizal-bonn.info/Rizal-in-Germany/frontpage.htm [11] The statue of Johann Gutenberg (1400-1468), German inventor of printing from movable type, made by Bertel Thorwaldsen (1768-1844), Danish sculptor. [12] Since the earthquake of 1863 that caused considerable damage to the buildings in Manila, including the residence of the Captains-general in the walled city or Intramuros, Malacañang Palace has been the official residence in Manila of the chief magistrates of the nation. The original palace has undergone many transformations over the years. [13] The National Monument on top of the Niederwald was unveiled on 28 September 1883. The figure of Germania, 10 meters high, stands on a pedestal 12 meters high. Below the figure is the imperial eagle 2 1/2 meters high. In the middle of the under socle is a relief showing the emperor on horseback and other German princes and generals. To its right rises the figure of Peace and to its left that of War. Below this relief on a projecting socle are allegorical figures of the Rhine and the Moselle. The monument was designed by Professor Weissbach of Dresden and the Germania and the reliefs by Professor Johann Schilling of Dresden, modeled and cast by Von Miller at Munich. [14] Malapad-na-bato, a Tagalog phrase literally meaning "Broad Rock", jutted out on the Pasig River. The ancient Tagalogs had woven many legends about it. The Spaniards converted it into a revenue station guarding the traffic through the Pasig. [15] Koblenz. [16] Ari Nagaseo supplied this footnote. A character in Joseph Victor von Scheffel's historical novel Ekkehard. [17] Siebengebirge, the Seven Mountains are Oelber 464 meters high; Lowenburg 459; Lohrberg 440; Nonnenstromberg 336; Petersberg 334; Wolkenburg 328; and Drachenfels 325. [18] Marceau was the brave French general Francois Séverin Marceau (1769-1796), mortally wounded in the Battle of Altenkirchen between the French and the Aus-trians. Even the Austrians mourned his death. The drawing is in the MS of Rizal’s diary. [19] A Filipino, perhaps Pedro A. Paterno. [20] Ari Nagasaeo added this footnote: In the year 970, so runs the legend, Hatto II., Archbishop of Mayence, who had made himself hateful to his people on account of his avarice and cruelty during a season of famine, was informed by one of his servants that a vast multitude of rats were advancing along the roads leading to the palace. The bishop betook himself at once to a tower in the middle of the Rhine, near Bingen, still known as the "Mouse Tower," where he sought safety from his pursuers. But the rats swam out to the tower, gnawed through its walls, and devoured him. We read also in "A Chronicle of the Kings of England" that, in the reign of William the Conqueror, a great lord was attacked by mice at a banquet, and "though he were removed from land to sea and from sea to land again," the mice pursued him to his death.
Details
1886
August
13
Germany
Frankfurt

Saturday [23]
[23] Ari Nagaseo supplied this footnote. Did Rizal mean Friday? Or did he take a tour of Frankfurt before 10 AM on Saturday? [24] A piece of cloth with which the Jews cover the head and shoulders in their religious ceremonies.
Details
1886
August
13
Germany


Friday, [14] 13 August 1886 [21]
[21] Ari Nagasaeo added this footnote: Rizal is mistaken about the date. 14 August 1886 was a Saturday. The correct date is Friday, 13. [22] Ari Nagasaeo added this footnote: Rizal's diary is mistaken about the date. From the previous entry, he mentions that he arrived in Kastel on a Friday. The correct date should be Friday, 13 August 1886.
Details
1886
August
14
Germany


Saturday 14 [25]
[25] Ari Nagasaeo added this footnote: Rizal gets this date correct. [25] Ari Nagasaeo added this footnote: Rizal gets this date correct. [26] Ari Nagasaeo added this footnote: This may be the first time that Rizal writes of being mistaken for a European national . In his previous entries he writes of being mistaken for either Japanese or Chinese instead of a Filipino. [27] Located between Switzerland and Austria, on the Rhine, it is an independent principality with an area of 62 square miles. [28] Vogels Berg.
Details
1886
August
15
Germany
Erfurt - Leipzig

Sunday
[29] Korbetha.
Details
1886
October
14
Germany
Leipzig

Leipzig, 14 October 1886 I have made the acquaintance of Doctor Hans Meyer,
[30] It is a knoll. [31] Ari Nagaseo supplied this footnote. Hans Meyer. German ethnologist. [32] Ari Nagaseo supplied this footnote. Did Rizal mean the first volume of Meyer's "Album von Philippinen-typen" (Dresden: W. Hoffmann, 1885)? Or did Meyer, prior to 1886, write another monograph on the Philippines apart from "Uber die negritos der Philippinem" (Batavia, 1873)? [33] This notation seems to indicate that Rizal was working for a publishing house at Leipzig as a corrector of copy, for he was then in need of money for the printing of his novel Noli me tángere. See his letter to his brother dated Leipzig, 12 October 1886. [34] Or kawas, vats.
Details
1886
October
21
Germany
Halle

the 21st of October

Details
1886
October
29
Germany
Dresden

29th of October

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1886
October
30
Germany
Dresden

30 October
[35] Rizal’s drawing is oval-shaped, nearly 2.5 centimeters in length. [36] Here again we have an instance of Rizal’s loyalty to his Catholic faith. Even though he was traveling, he went to hear Mass. [37] A Philippine helmet made of woven straw or rattan with lining and sometimes with artistic silver decorations.
Details
1886
November
1
Germany
Berlin

1st – The day is splendid. Today I leave for Berlin
[38] Rizal writes a letter regarding Unter den Linden written on the 27th of June 1887. It is addressed to “a friend” and may either be an exercise in French composition or a draft of a letter yet to be sent. It is found in his notebook, Clinica Médica, in the Ayer Library at Chicago, Illinois, USA. It is unsigned and has no addressee.
Details
1887


Philippines
Calamba

7. Biñan to Manila * ON THE STEAMER BAKAL, 1887
* Rizal wrote this portion of his diary partly in Spanish and partly in German. [01] Plays with singing parts. [02] Rizal mentions the disaster of the steamer Lipa in his letter to his brother Paciano from Madrid on 13 February 1883. [03] Mr. Isidro Yatco of Biñan.
Details
1887
June
27
Italy
Rome

Before the ruins of the Rome of the Caesars - My feet tread on the dust of heroes.-- The Capitol, the Tarpeian Rock, the Palatinum. Forum. Amphitheatre, before the eyes of the archaeologist -- At the Capitoline Museum and the church of St. Mary Major - A flower from the garden of the palace of Septimius Severus for Blumentritt as a remembrance,
1 Fortified imperial residence built on top of the Capitoline hill 2 High rocky peak of a hill in Rome from which condemned traitors were hurled, as was Tarpeia. 3 Ancient palace of the Roman emperors. 4 Public place for the transaction of judicial and public business. 5 An oval building with rising tiers of seats for the holding of spectacles, like gladiatorial combats. 6 A building used for the study of Roman Science, letters, and arts where very ancient objects are stored – paintings, medals, machinery, weapons. 7 Roman Emperor, son of Tarquin the Proud, who also became emperor.
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1887
June
29





Details
1887
July
3
France
Marseille

First day (3 July 1887) - Marseilles to Saigon on board the "Djemnah"
* This is Rizal’s diary of his return to the Philippines after the publication of his novel, Noli me tangere. The translator used a Photostat of the original. [01] “P” is a code for “prostitute.”
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1887
July
4
Italy


2nd day (4th).

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1887
July
5
Italy


3rd day.

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1887
July
6
Italy


4th day.
[02] Often called Crete, an island in the East Mediterranean.
Details
1887
July
7
On board the Djemnah
Mediteranean Sea

Far from Europe - Adieu "beautiful country of liberty" - Field glasses lost- "pecuniary loss can relegate to oblivion a sentimental pain" - Advantages of a polyglot.

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1887
July
7



5th day
[03] Perhaps this is the name and address of a fellow passenger.
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1887
July
8



6th day

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1887
July
9



7th day

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1887
July
10



8th day Sunday

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1887
July
11



9th day – Monday
[04] This entry is written in French. [05] This entry is written in German
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1887
July
12



10th day – Tuesday

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1887
July
13

Aden

11th day – Wednesday
[06] This entry is written in Italian. Rizal writes in different languages so as not to forget them.
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1887
July
14

Aden

12th day (14 July)

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1887
July
18

Aden

18 July, Monday, 16th day of the voyage.

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1887
July
21

Colombo

On the 21, Thursday

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1887
July
22

Colombo

22 July
[07] This entry is in German. [08] This last clause is in French.
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1887
July
25



25 July, Monday
[09] Translation from the German by Professor Cecilio López, University of the Philippines. This is perhaps just an exercise in German composition.
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1887
July
26

Singapore

26 July, Tuesday

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1887
July
28

Singapore

Thursday, 28 July
[10] A remarkable aquatic plant of the water-lily family with spreading leaves often over 5 feet in diameter and immense rose-white flowers.
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1887
July
29
On board the ship Djennah


n a post card Rizal writes Canon about his trip
01] Noli me tángere multiplied to infinity. (Ponce’s note)
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1887
July
29



29 Friday

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1887
July
30
Vietnam
Saigon

30 July 1887 – Saturday

Details
1887
August
2
Vietnam
Saigon

2 August 1887 - Saigon to Manila on board the "Haiphong"

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1887
August
4



4 August – Tuesday

Details
1887
August
5



5 August – Friday
[01] Anthony Tuckney, British author and authority on the Bible.
Details
1887
August
8
Philippines
Manila

8 August 1887 - On the steamer "Binan"
* Rizal writes this portion of his diary in German. [01] A town near Kalamba, Province of Laguna. [02] Rizal wrote down the legend of Doña Gerónima who lived in this grotto on the right bank of the Pasig River between San Pedro Makati and Malapad-na-bató
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1888
February
3
Philippines
Manila

3 February 1888

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1888
February
4
Philippines


4 – Saturday

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1888
February
6



6 – Monday

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1888
February
7
China
Hong Kong

7 – Tuesday

Details
1888
February
8
China
Hong Kong

8 – Wednesday

Details
1888
February
9

Hong Kong

9 – Thursday

Details
1888
February
10
China
Hong Kong

10 – Friday
* During Rizal’s stay at his hometown Kalamba from August 1887 until his departure in February 1888 he received threats against his life from the Spanish friars who hated him on account of his progressive ideas and writings. Fearing for his life, his family, and friends compelled Rizal to leave the country. ** See Rizal’s letters giving his account of his sojourn in Japan. [01] His sister Olimpia, who died in September, 1887. Sra. Is the abbreviation of the Spanish word Señora, literally “Mrs.” In English. Rizal, a very respectful man, always referred to his married sisters as Sra. María, Sra. Neneng, etc.
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1888
February
11
China
Hong Kong



Details
1888
February
12
China
Hong Kong

12 – Sunday
[02] A dish of Chinese noodles.
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1888
February
13
China
Hong Kong

13 – Monday

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1888
February
14
China
Hong Kong

14 – Tuesday

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1888
February
15
China
Hong Kong

15 – Wednesday

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1888
February
16
China
Hong Kong

16 – Thursday

Details
1888
February
17
China
Hong Kong

17 – Friday

Details
1888
February
18
China
Hong Kong to Macao

18 Saturday

Details
1888
February
22
China
Hong Kong to Japan

22 – Wednesday

Details
1888
February
28
Japan
Yokohama

* During Rizal’s stay at his hometown Kalamba from August 1887 until his departure in February 1888 he received threats against his life from the Spanish friars who hated him on account of his progressive ideas and writings. Fearing for his life, his family, and friends compelled Rizal to leave the country. ** See Rizal’s letters giving his account of his sojourn in Japan. We arrived at Yokohama on the 28th, early in the morning. Tuesday. We were met by one from the Grand Hotel where I lodged.

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1888
March
1
Japan
Tokyo

Spanish charge d'affaires invites Rizal to his hotel room -- Yokohama and Manila compared -- Japanese men and women -- Impression of Tokyo

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1888
March
4
Japan
Tokyo

Rizal, wonder of the Japanese - Like a Europeanized Jap¬anese - Japanese women adopt European attire - Industry and integrity - few thieves and beggars - how disgusting to see a man drawing a jinrikissha like a horse!
1 A literal translation of the Spanish saying, No saludo con sobrero ajeno, which means, "I don't bask in reflected glory."
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1888
April
7
Japan
Tokyo

Travelling to America - learning Japanese - trees are blossoming
A fragment of Rizal's letter
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1888
April
13
Japan
Yokohama

13 April
[03] O-Sei-San, name of the Japanese girl. [04] Rizal received several offers of employment in Japan but the declined them.
Details
1888
April
14



14 – Saturday

Details
1888
April
15



Diary is blank

Details
1888
April
28
U S A
San Francisco

Sunday, 28 April

Details
1888
April
28
U S A
San Francisco

Saturday, 28 (April 1888)

Details
1888
April
29
U S A
San Francisco

gists of 10 combs to his sisters - two doors for Paciano
On board S.S. Belgic
Details
1888
April
30
U S A
San Francisco

n California under quarantine - Folklorists and anthropologists appear in Ilocos.
1) Pseudonym of Mr. Isabelo de los Reyes (1864-1938).
Details
1888
April
30

San Francisco

Monday, 30

Details
1888
May
3
U S A
San Francisco

Thursday, 3 May

Details
1888
May
4
U S A
San Francisco

Friday, 4 May

Details
1888
May
6
U S A
San Francisco

We left San Francisco on Sunday, 6 May, at 4:30 in the afternoon

Details
1888
May
8
U S A
Utah

Tuesday, 8 May –

Details
1888
May
9
U S A
Colorado

Wednesday, 9 May – We passed between rocky mountains beside a river along the way.

Details
1888
May
10
U S A
Nebraska

Thursday, 10 May –

Details
1888
May
11
U S A
Chicago

Friday, 11 May –

Details
1888
May
12
U S A
Niagara Falls

Saturday, 12 May –

Details
1888
May
13
U S A
Albany

Sunday 13 May –

Details
1888
May
14

New York City



Details
1888
May
16
U S A
New Work City

We left New York on 16 May 1888.

Details
1888
May
17
U S A


Thursday, 17 May –

Details
1888
May
18
U S A
On way to Ireland

Friday, 18 May –

Details
1888
May
19

On way to Ireland

Saturday, 19 May –

Details
1888
May
20

On way to Ireland

Sunday, 20 May –

Details
1888
May
21

On way to Ireland

Monday, 21 May –

Details
1888
May
22

On way to Ireland

Tuesday, 22 May—

Details
1888
May
23

On way to Ireland

Wednesday, 23 May –

Details
1888
May
24



Description of the City of Rome -- Many languages are spoken aboard
(1) The vara was an old unit of linear measure in Spain and Spanish America. It varied from about 31 to 33 inches in length.
Details
1888
May
24
Ireland
Queenstown-Liverpool

Thursday, 24 May 1888 –

Details
1888
May
25
Ireland
Lierpool

25 May, Friday –
[01] The reader is encouraged to compare this entry in Rizal’s diary with the letter (No. 125) he wrote his family on 24 of May 1888.
Details
1888
June
12
U K
London

He didn't find letters from home upon arrival -- His trip from Liverpool to London -- He boards with an English family -- Sunday at London is boring

Details
1888
July
27
U K
London

Rizal receives Larra’s work – Relates his hurried departure from the Philippines – Amusing incident on the boat – Impressions of America – Lauds Plaridel’s patriotic labors.

Details
1889
July
4
France
Paris to Dieppe

4 July 1889

Details
1891
October
18
France
Marseillles

Sunday, 18 October 1891 - Marseille to Hong Kong WHAT SHIP WAS HE ON????

Details
1891
October
19

On way to Hong Kong

19 October –
* The reader is encouraged to read Rizal’s letter to Ferdinand Blumentritt written on board the Melbourne written on 22 October 1891. [01] That is, they played cards for money. NOTE: The Filipino scientist, Dr. L. B. Uichanco, was of help with many of the scientific terms.
Details
1891
October
20
Italy
On board Steamer

20 October –

Details
1891
October
21



21 October.

Details
1891
October
22

On way to Hong Kong

22 October –

Details
1891
October
22

Mediterranean Sea

After Marseille, magnificent weather, tranquil sea, paiadisiacal voyage - Rizal eager to return home - Something is pushing him to it - Luck or misfortune - Many missionaries on board: Franciscans, Jesuits, and Bishop Volenteri - He sympathizes with the fate of the Philippines - He spoke against the wealth and abuses of the friars in the country - And he repeated: "They are so rich, but very rich!"
1 A character in his novel Noli me tangere
Details
1891
October
23
Egypt
Alexandria

23 October –
[02] Or balanggot, a species of small, soft rattan. (Cypheus molaccenis Lam.).
Details
1891
October
25
Egypt
Red Sea

25 October—
[03] He alludes to the Boustead family of Brussels. Miss Nelly Boustead was willing to marry Rizal provided he would turn Protestant. Rizal refused.
Details
1891
October
26
Egypt


26 October –

Details
1891
October
27



27 October –
[04] Marquis Joseph François Dupleix (1697-1763), French colonial administrator in India.
Details
1891
October
28



28 October –

Details
1891
October
29

Aden

29 October –

Details
1891
October
30



30 October –
[05] Or kanduli, the Manila sea catfish (Arius Manillenis Cuvier and Valenciennes).
Details
1891
October
31



31 October –
[06] ‘Abd al Kuri.
Details
1891
November
1



1st November – Sunday.
[07] Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (1828-19110), Russian novelist, philosopher, and mystic. [08] Literally: The sand rises to the shore The seaweed of the deep appears; To his mistress the sea Is unfaithful Rizal writes this in Italian in order not to forget it.
Details
1891
November
2



2 November –
[09] Name of a British shipping line, Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, which began operations in 1837.
Details
1891
November
3



3 November –

Details
1891
November
4



4 November –
[10] Literally, “violin strings,” strips of wood fastened to the edge of tables when a ship expects stormy weather.
Details
1891
November
5



5 November –

Details
1891
November
6

Colombo

6 November –
[11] A striking tree cultivated for ornamental purposes. It stands out in a group because of its light green leaves, which may be cooked as a vegetable when young.
Details
1891
November
7



7 November

Details
1891
November
8



8 November --

Details
1891
November
9



9 November --

Details
1891
November
10

Singapore

10 November --
[12] Inserted in his diary is this note on the manufacture of wine. [13] In the Philippines, literally, female monkey; figuratively, a term of contempt.
Details
1891
November
11



11 November --

Details
1891
November
12



12 November –

Details
1891
November
14
Vietnam
Saigon

Saturday 14 or 13 (?) [This particular Saturday in November of 1891 would have been the 14th. – rly]
[14] A species of mangrove (Rhizophora mucronata Lam.) [15] A primitive plant related to our so-called “olivas” (Cyas revolute) and “pitogo” (Cycas rumphil). [16] A wild tree related to the “anonang” which is common in the Philippines (Cordia dichotoma). [17] A striking tree cultivated for ornamental purposes. It stands out in a group because of its light green leaves, which may be cooked as a vegetable when young. [18] “Tuba,” a species of shrub and seeds yielding the croton oil of commerce. (Croton tiglium L.)
Details
1891
November
15



15 November –
[19] In the Philippines a market is often called palenque or palenke.
Details
1891
November
16



16 November –

Details
1891
November
17



17 November –

Details
1891
November
19



19 November—

Details
1892
March
7

Philippines waters
Borneo
7 March 1892 – On his way to Borneo
* Although Borneo is not mentioned, these are notes of his trip to Borneo on board the steamer Memnon which he took at Hong Kong where he was then temporarily residing. We have the draft of the letter to the editor of La Solidaridad from Sandakan, (Borneo) dated 6 April 1892. By 20 April 1892 he was back at Hong Kong as stated in his letter with that date to Blumentritt. Mariano Ponce has placed a note on these fragments stating simply that the Memnon was the name of the ship in which Rizal traveled.
Details
1892
March
8



8 March, Friday –
[01] The sketch is found in the original MS. NOTE: Many of the definitions which follow are given with the help of the Filipino scientist, Dr. Leopoldo B. Uichanco. [02] Pagatpat, Tagalog name for Sonneratia pagatpat Blanco, a tree growing in mangrove swamps with broad and rather large leaves. [03] Large gray and green wild pigeons. [04] Ipil (Intsia). It produces lumber of the first group. [05] Batad (Andropogon sorghum) Brot. Or Sorghum vulgare). A kind of coarse annual grass cultivated as a cereal. [06] Or, limatik. This is a land leech which is a nuisance in wet forest areas at middle altitudes. [07] White grubs which are the larvae of scarabaeoid beetles (unang, salagubang, etc.).
Details
1892
June
26
Philippines
Manila

I arrived at Manila on 26 June (1892), Sunday at 12:00 noon.
* Rizal’s personal account of his arrival from Hong Kong and his deportation to Dapitan.
Details
1892
June
27
Philippines
Bulacan



Details
1892
June
28
Philippines
Manila

I arrived at Manila on Tuesday at 5:00 o’clock in the afternoon.

Details
1892
June
29
Philippines
Manila

On Wednesday at 7:30, I saw His Excellency. I did not succeed to have the penalty of exile lifted but he gave me hope with regard to my sisters. As it was the feast of St. Peter and St. Paul our interview ended at 9:15. I was to come again the following day at 7:30.

Details
1892
June
30
Philippines
Manila
Borneo - The following day, Thursday, we talked about the question of Borneo. The general was opposed to it, very much opposed. He told me to come back Sunday.


Details
1892
July
3
Philippines
Manila



Details
1892
July
6
Philippines
Fort Santiago



Details
1892
July
14
Philippines
Fort Santiago



Details
1892
July
15
Philippines
Manila



Details
1892
July
17
Philippines
Dapitan


* Rizal’s personal account of his arrival from Hong Kong and his deportation to Dapitan. [01] A practicante is one who practices medicine under the direction or guidance of a licensed physician, or he may be a pharmacy clerk.
Details
1896
July
30
Philippines
Dapitan

Dapitan to Barcelona

Details
1896
August
1
Philippines
Dumaguete



Details
1896
August
2
Philippines
Cebu



Details
1896
August
4
Philippines
Capiz



Details
1896
August
4
Philippines
Iloilo



Details
1896
August
6
Philippines
Manila - Ship Castilla



Details
1896
September
2





Details
1896
September
3
Philippines
Manila - ship Espana


[01] Pseudonym of a Spanish journalist whose name was Vicente García y Valdez.
Details
1896
September
4

On board Espana


[02] The beginning of the Philippine Revolution of 1896.
Details
1896
September
5

on board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
6

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
7

On bopard ship Espana



Details
1896
September
8

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
9

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
10

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
11

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
12

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
13

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
14

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
15

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
16

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
17

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
18

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
19

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
20

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
21
Philippines
Fort Santiago

Death aboard -- In charge of one patient -- Fine weather -- He is in good health.
(1) Luis Martinez Beaumont, husband to his aunt Concepción Leyba, who died on board a ship en route to Spain. (2) He was Domingo Carrió who died at sea five days after this letter was written, on 26 September, and dropped into the sea on the same day. (3) Don Pedro A. Paterno's brother-in-law, Don Manuel Piñeyro, a Spaniard. (4) The name of the alley on which was located the residence of his sister Narcisa, married to Antonio Lopez, where Josephine Bracken was staying.
Details
1896
September
21

Aden



Details
1896
September
22

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
23

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
24

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
25

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
26

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
27

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
28

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
29

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
September
30

On board ship Espana - Malta



Details
1896
October
1

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
October
2

On board ship Espana



Details
1896
October
3
Spain
On board ship Espana - Barcelona



Details
1896
October
4
Spain
On board ship Espana - Barcelona



Details
1896
October
5
Spain
On board ship Espana - Barelona



Details
1896
October
6
Spain
Barcelona - Montjuich


[03] Also Montjuich. This is a fortress guarding the city.
Details
1896
October
6
Spain
Montjuich - ship Colon

Tuesday - 6 On board the "Colon"

Details
1896
October
7

On board ship Colon



Details
1896
October
8

On board ship Colon



Details
1896
October
9

On board ship Colon
Last Days - Here this day Dr. Jose Rizal think of what will happen to him. He is happy to go back to the Philippines and only two possibilities can happen: 1, declared innocent or 2, be executed
Here this day Dr. Jose Rizal think of what will happen to him. He is happy to go back to the Philippines and only two possibilities can happen: 1. He is done justice and declared innocent and therefore vindicated 2. Or he is sentenced to die and die a MARTYR and history will be his judge. Seems like he is prepared to face whatever may happen to him and that at last as he wrote in his "Ultimo Adios" "To die is to rest" - Gilbert
[01] Fray Benito Jerónimo Feijóo (1676 -1764), learned Benedictine monk, critic, and writer.
Details
1896
October
10

On board ship Colon



Details
1896
November
2

On board ship Colon



Details

 

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